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Published In: Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 8: 67. 1865. (J. Linn. Soc., Bot.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
Flower/Fruit: Fl. Per.: April-May, sometimes September. Fruit: August-November.
Type: Type: “Banks of Jumna and Sutlej, near Turanda” Royle (K).
Distribution: Distribution: Afghanistan, Pakistan, Kashmir.
Comment/Acknowledgements: Very common in the lower hills, 500-2000 m, gregarious, usually with Acacia modesta. Frequently planted in graveyards. The wood is very hard and heavy, used for turning, ploughs etc. and as firewood.

This species could be treated as a subsp. of Olea europaea but I hesitate to do this without a full treatment of the complex.

Photo: Olea ferruginea Wall. ex Aitch. (Photo)
Map Location: B-7 Hazara: Malkandi (Kaghan vy.), J.R. Drummond 21966 (K) ; Shinkiari, 3500 ft., M.A. Siddiqi, Y. Nasir & Zaffar Ali 4051 (RAW) ; Abbottabad road, Qaiser & Ghafoor 4855 (KUH); B-7 Swat: Saidu Sharif, 3500 ft., R.J. Rodin 5399 (RAW, K) ; Malakand Pass, 3000 ft., M.A. Siddiqi 27078 (RAW); B-6 Chitral: Chitral, Hill sides, 3500-5000 ft., S.M. Toppin 580 (K); B-6 Khyber: Tirah, ,J.F. Duthie 63 (K); D-5 Baluchistan: Loralai-Killa Saiffula, 40th mile, Mohindar Nath 2267 (RAW); Singarh, Harsukh 20587 a (K) ; Murdar Kach, J.H. Lace 3367 (K) ; C-7 Dist. Jhelum : Mogli, Kabir Khan in J.R. Drummond 20415 (K) ; Beshani, 2000 ft., Y. Nasir and Zaffar Ali 5538 (RAW). C-7 Rawalpindi Dist.: Damyal, Mohindar Nath, s.n., 23rd April, 1939 (RAW); Murree Rd. 20th mile, R.R. Stewart 16556 (RAW); Margalla, 2000 ft., R.R. Stewart 14663 B (RAW).


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Trees or shrubs, up to 10 m high, greyish green. Bark smooth when young, peeling off in narrow strips when old. Leaves oblong-lanceolate to ovate, 3-10 cm long, often cuspidate, very coriaceous, dark green and shining above, with a dense film of minute scales beneath which turn reddish brown on older leaves, margins recurved, midrib prominent; petiole short. Flowers whitish, in trichotomous axillary 2-4 cm long cymes. Calyx truncate or with 4 short teeth. Corolla tube very short, lobes 4, 1-2 mm long, elliptic, obtuse or acute, with a ridge along the middle. Drupe c. 8 mm long, 5 mm in diameter, ovoid, black when ripe; pulp scanty, oily.
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