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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 3/18/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 3/18/2013)
Species Crotoni pungens Jacquin
PlaceOfPublication Coll. 4: 217, 1791; Icon. PI. Rar. 3: 19, pl. 622, 1794
Reference Muell.-Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15(2): 540, 1866.
Synonym Croton standleyi Steyermark, Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 22: 151, 1940.
Description Shrub or tree 1-5(-20?) m high; monoecious; young twigs with hispidulously stellate-tomentose indumentum. Leaves thinly chartaceous; petioles hispidulous- tomentose, (1-)2-6 cm long, the glands at apex of petiole 2-4, patelliform, dis- tinctly stalked, 0.4-0.8 mm across (stalk ca 0.7-1.5 mm long); stipules linear to subulate, 1.5-4 mm long, sparsely stellate; blades ovate, ca 5-15 cm long, 2-10 cm broad, greenish above and rather sparsely pubescent with scattered oligoradiate stellate or short-stalked dendritic hairs, whitish-tomentose beneath with multiradi- ate dendritic hairs (ca 0.4-0.8 mm across), 5-7-nerved at base, with 3-6 additional veins on either side, the veinlet reticulum rather prominent beneath, the base usually cordate, the margins entire to finely denticulate, the apex abruptly acumi- nate. Inflorescences terminal (sometimes pseudoaxillary), bisexual or sometimes staminate, racemiform, (3-)10-22 cm long; bisexual inflorescences with 1-15 proximal hermaphriditic cymules, distal cymules male; bracts lanceolate, acute to, acuminate, tomentose, ca 1-3 mm long, each subtending several flowers. Staminate flowers with hispidulous-tomentose pedicels 3-8 mm long; calyx-lobes 5, triangular, stel- late-tomentose, 2.2-2.5 mm long, 1.1-1.5 mm broad; receptacle densely villose; petals obovate, 2.3-2.9 mm long, 1-1.3 mm broad, glabrous except for the minutely ciliate margins; stamens 27-43, the filaments 2.5-3 mm long, glabrous and +- papil- lose, the anthers elliptic, 0.7-1 mm long. Pistillate flowers subsessile, the stout pedicels even in fruit only 1-2 mm long; calyx-segments 5, ? unequal, oblong to linear-lanceolate, valvate, 2.5-3.7 mm long, 0.7-1.6 mm broad, stellate-tomentose on both faces; disc obscure; petals (staminodia?) antheriform, callose, swollen, ca 0.3-0.4 mm long; ovary closely tomentose with tawny stellate hairs, the styles free, bifid, copiously stellate-pubescent, ca 4-4.5 mm long, divided more than l/2 way to the base. Capsules obovoid, ca 6.5-7.5 mm long, yellowish, closely stellate- scurfy, the columella slender, apically 3-pronged, ca 5.5-6 mm long; seeds plump, dull to blackish brown, rugose-costate, 5.1-5.7 mm long, 3.6-4.1 mm broad, the caruncle ovate, ca 1.5 mm wide.
Habit Shrub or tree
Distribution Montane forests, Costa Rica to Venezuela, Peru, and Brazil; in Panama occur- ring above 1000 m.
Elevation above 1000 m.
Specimen CHIRIQUI: Finca Lerida to Pefia Blanca, Woodson & Schery 293 (MO); Paso Ancho to Monte Lirio, Allen 1474 (A, MO); Volcan de Chiriqui, llanos, Allen 978 (MO), 4855 (MO); id., Davidson 892 (A, MO; type coll. of Croton standleyi); id., Camiseta, Terry 1357 (MO, US).
Note Although at present known only from the Boquete region in extreme western Panama, this widespread species may be found on the higher summits in Darien. The type collection of Croton standleyi represents an unusually small-leaved form, but does not appear to show any important differences from C. pungens. A rather closely related species, Croton xalapens.is H.B.K., does not occur in Panama so far as is known. It differs from C. pungens especially in lacking male flowers at the lower 9 nodes of the inflorescences.
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