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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 3/22/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 3/22/2013)
Species Anacardium occidentale L.
PlaceOfPublication Sp. P1. 383, 1753.-Fig. 2.
Description Tree to 8(-10) m. Leaves ? aggregated toward the apex of the branchlets, the petioles 5-20 mm long; blades broadly oblong-ovate to somewhat obovate, obtuse to rounded or slightly emarginate at the apex, cuneate to obtuse or rounded at the base, glabrous, 6-15.5 cm long, 3.5-9 cm broad, with prominulous reticulation on both surfaces. Panicles 7-16.5 cm long, with gray pubescence; bracts usually at least sparsely puberulent, -those subtending the lower primary branches of the panicle oblanceolate or oblong and foliaceous (though much reduced in size), those subtending the distal branches and flowers or flower-groups ovate and resembling the calyx-lobes. Flowers with pedicels 0.5-7 mm long; calyx-segments lanceolate to lance-ovate, 2.5-5 mm long, 1-2.3 mm broad, moderately grayish-appressed- puberulent dorsally; petals linear to linear-lanceolate or narrowly linear-elliptic, 6-13 mm long, 1-2 mm broad, greenish-yellow with red streaks at anthesis, turning dark red with age; stamens 10, 1 much longer than the others and extending well beyond the point at which the petals become recurved, the filaments glabrous; ovary 0.2-0.5 mm long. Hypocarp red or yellow at maturity, to 10 cm long and 5 cm broad, ? obovate. Nut gray, 2-3.2 cm long, 1-2 cm broad.
Habit Tree
Distribution Present and often common by introduction and cultivation throughout the tropics of the New and Old World, becoming naturalized in many places; probably native from Costa Rica to Brazil and Ecuador.
Specimen CANAL ZONE: s. loc., Blum 2224 (MO); [Las Sabanas?], Bro. Celestine 105 (US); betw Mt Hope & Santa Rita Trail, Cowell 92 (US); Barro Colorado I, Epplesheimer 2 (F), Wilson 82 (F), Woodworth & Vestal 711 (F); s. loc., Epplesheimer s.n. (F); Chagres, Fendler 308 (MO, US); Gatun, Hayes 9 (MO, US); nr Fort Randolph, Maxon & Harvey 6522 (US); [Sabanas?], Bro. Paul 209 (US); betw Corozal & Ancon, Pittier 2633 (US); Balboa, Standley 25510 (US), 27127 (US); Curundu, Tyson 3574 (MO); Ancon Hill Wil- liams 36 (US). CHIRIQUI: 25 mi E of David, Harvey 2568 (F); 12.4 mi N of David, Lewis et. al. 719 (MO). COCLE: Aguadulce, Pittier 4845 (US). COLON: betw France Field, Canal Zone & Catival, Standley 30324 (US). DARIEN: vic of El Real, Rio Tuira, Stern et al. 791 (MO, US). HERRERA: vic of Ocu', Allen 4063 (MO). PANAMA: Taboga I, Allen 130 (F, MO), Hjerting & Rahn 615 (US); 1 mi E of Tocumen airport on side rd off Inter-Amer Hwy, Blum & Tyson 1964 (MO); along rd betw Panama & Chepo, Dodge et al. 16706 (MO); Capira, Duke 6031 (MO); Cermefio, Dwyer & Robyns 109 (MO); on sabanas, rd to Chepo, Hunter & Steyermark s.n. (MO); Chorrera, Killip 3404 (US); Bellavista, Macbride 2728 (F, MO, US); nr Tapia River, Juan Diaz region, Maxon & Harvey 6720 (US); Tumba Muerto Rd, nr Panama, Standley 29829 (US). VERAGUAS: vic of Santiago, Allen 1079 (MO); rd betw San Francisco & Santa Fe, Stern et al. 1918 (MO).
Note This species is commonly known as maraiion and jocote maraiion in Central America. It produces the commercially important cashew nut. The cashew nut must be roasted before the seed, the "cashew nut" of commerce can be eaten. Cashew nuts are not produced on a large economic scale in tropical America (the native home of the cashew) but are largely exported from India where the cashew is extensively cultivated. The ripe, red or yellow hypocarp (the swollen pedicel subtending the nut) has a juicy, spongy, yellowish flesh and is used as a fruit in tropical America. The hypocarp is often mistaken for the true fruit and is some- times referred to as the "cashew apple." Care should be exerted to avoid the nut when eating the hypocarp as the unroasted pericarp contains a volatile, irritating oil which may blister the skin.
Common maraiion jocote maraiion
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