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Published In: Species Plantarum 2: 1027. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
Flower/Fruit: Fl. Per. April-September.
Type: Type: India Hb. Linn. 1177. 1 (LINN).
Distribution: Distribution: Russia, China, India, Pakistan, Iran and cultivated elsewhere.
Comment/Acknowledgements: Indian Hemp is widely cultivated in many countries for its valuable fibres for making ropes, strings etc. A strong narcotic is derived from the resin of stem, leaves, flowers and even the fruits, and the following products are obtained. (1) Ganja is derived from the resinous exudation from the female flowering top and unfertilized female flowers. (2) Charas is obtained by rubbing of the leaves, young twigs, flowers and young fruits (3) Bhang is derived from older leaves and mature fruits. Ganja and charas are smoked and Bhang is either used in the preparation of green intoxicating beverage known as “Hashish” or the manu¬facture of sweetmeet known as Majun. Bhang is much weaker than Charas and Ganja. The seeds are occasionally eaten and much valued for feeding birds. The seed oil is used as luminant and in making of paints, varnishes and soap.

A very adaptable species from plains to 10000 ft., grows abundantly on roadside especially in Northern regions.

Photo: Cannabis sativa L. (Photo)
Map Location: A-7 Gilgit Dist.: Minipur, Nagar-Gilgit—7000 ft. R.R. Stewart s.n. 16. viii. I954 (RAW); B-6 Dir Dist: near River, Dir, M. Qaiser & A. Ghafoor 1711 (KUH) Dir-Lohari Pass, M.A. Siddiqui 27074 (RAW) 1 mile from Birirnisar on way to Drosh, Sultanul Abedin 8156 (KUH); Chitral Dist : Birrir Village, (Kafristan) M. Qaiser & A. Ghafoor 1897 (KUH); B-6 Rabat, Sultanul Abedin 7802 (KUH); N.W.F.P.: B-6 Malakand, M.. Qaiser & A. Ghafoor 1986 (KUH); B-7 Swat Dist: 61 miles from Saidu Sharif on way to Kalam Marghazar, Sultanul Abedin 8519 (KUH); Aman Kot, Saidu Sharif 8242 (KUH); S.A. Faruqi 24 (KUH); Hazara Dist: Abbottabad 4000 ft. S.M.A. Kazmi s.n. 10.xi.51 (KUH); Nathia¬gali, S.I. Ali s.n. 17.vi. 1959 (KUH), P.W.D. Rest House, Kagan, Sultanul Abedin M. Qaiser 8850 (KUH); Punjab: C-7 Jehlum Dist: near river R.R. & I.D. Stewart 518 (RAW); 65 miles from Lahore on way to Rawalpindi, Sultanul Abedin 7593 (KUH) ; Kashmir: C-7 Tolti to Baghicha, Indus valley Road, R.R. Stewart 20968 (RAW); C-7 Rawalpindi Dist: Rawalpindi, Shabuddin Masud 32 (KUH); Islamabad, 2000, Zaibunnisa Abdullah, 7 (KUH); shrub with fruits. M. Qaiser 295 (KUH); Sargodha Dist: Jinnah Garden Sargodha Sultanul Abedin, 2494 (KUH); Campbellpur Dist: Wah garden M. Qaiser 271 (KUH); D-8 Lahore Dist: 3 miles from Lahore on way to Wagah, 2403 (KUH); Sind: G-4 Karachi Dist: Malir, Meraj Kirmani s.n. 16.i.1961 (KUH); Karachi University Campus, Qamar Sultana s.n. 4.ii.1961 (KUH).


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Annual, 75 cm—1.5 (-2 5) in tall, slender; stem and branches slightly angular with appressed hairs (dense on younger shoots). Leaves palmately 3-9 (-11) foliolate, petiole ( .5) 2-10 (-12), cm pubescent, hairs white, appresed; lobes sessile, narrowly lanceolate, narrowed at base, palmtinerved, serrate, accuminate-caudate, 2-11 (14) cm long, 3-15 ( 20) mm broad; upper surface scabrid with stiff hairs topping the cystoliths; lower surface more or less densely pubescent, covered with sessile glands, stipules 4-6 mm long. Male flowers 4-6 mm across, greenish, pedicel 1-1.5 mm long, filiform. Tepals elliptic or oblong, finely pubescent, 3-4 ( 5) mm long, 1.5-2 mm broad, entire, acute. Stamen 4-5 mm long, Female flower as large as the perigonium; bracts foliaceous (-2) 4-13 mm long, covered with small glandular hairs, bracteole linear, 1.5-2.5 mm long. Perigonium entire, membranous, broadly ovate, beaked at the tip, compressed, much enlarged, contorted and rolled above the upper half in the fruit, up to 5-8 mm long, densely hispid or pilose, prominently ridged. Ovary sessile, sub-globose, C 0.5 mm long, styles 2-3 (-4) mm long, brown, caducous-pubescent. Achene 3-4 mm in diameter, shining, yellowish brown, minutely pilose to glabrous, ovate; seed only with fleshy unilateral endosperm.
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