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Published In: Species Plantarum 2: 1062–1063. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 7/9/2009)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 7/9/2009)
Status: Native


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4. Ophioglossum vulgatum L. (southern adder's tongue) Pl. 10e,f; Map 50

Ophioglossum vulgatum var. pycnostichum Fernald

Stems short-cylindrical, sometimes slightly thickened. Leaves usually 1 per stem, 5–30 cm long. Vegetative portion usually flat, not folded longitudinally, sessile to short-stalked, ovate to lanceolate, the base truncate to rounded or short-cuneate, the tip rounded, not sharply pointed. Veins all about the same thickness, forming a simple network, the areoles not enclosing thinner networks of veins. Fertile portion 1–4 times as long as the sterile portion. 2n= 960, about 1,320. April–August.

Eastern Missouri north to Lincoln County (eastern U.S. west to Texas and disjunctly in Arizona, Mexico, Europe, Asia). Rich soils of mesic forests, often in the bottoms of ravines; also in bottomland forests.

The leaves of this species are shiny when fresh. In contrast to other Missouri species, O. vulgatum is usually found in deep shade, rather than in sunny habitats.

Reports of the northern adder's tongue, O. pusillum Raf. (O. vulgatum var. pseudopodum (Blake) Farw.), from Missouri were based upon misdetermined specimens of O. vulgatum. The northern adder's tongue does not occur south of central Iowa in the Midwest.



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