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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 9/12/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 9/12/2013)
Species Psychotria capitata Ruiz & Pavon
PlaceOfPublication Fl. Peruv. Chil. 2: 59. 1799.
Note TYPE: Chinchao, Huanuco, Peru, Ruiz & Pavon. Not seen.
Synonym Psychotria inundata Benth., J. Bot. (Hooker) 3: 229. 1841. TYPE: Essequibo, British Guiana, Schoinburgk 27. Not seen. Psychotria albonervia Standley, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 18: 131. 1916. Not Jacq. TYPE: Panama, Fendler 62 (US, holotype; isotype, MO). Palicourea stevensonii Standley, Trop. Woods 16, 32. 1928. TYPE: Belize, Stevenson 10683 (NY, holotype).
Description Shrubs or trees to 4 m tall, the branchlets ramose, terete, smooth, glabrous, the pith abundant. Leaves elliptic oblong, 4-17 cm long, 1.5-7.0 cm wide, apically deltoid to subacute, occasionally rounded with an acumen to 1.5 cm long, often falcate, basally cuneate or occasionally obtuse, the costa prominulous above, prominent beneath, the lateral veins 12-18(-20), conspicuous, widely arcuate, usually drying white in contrast to the lamina, prominulous above and beneath with 1 (or 2-3) irregular subparallel veins between adjacent lateral veins, these soon disappearing or branching, the intervenal areas spreading reticulate, stiffly papyraceous, concolorous, drying green, glabrous; petioles to 2 cm long, often reflexed, glabrous; stipules free, often persistent, especially at the tips of the twigs, oblong, ovate oblong, 10-20 mm long, 4.5-5.5 mm wide at the base, vari- able at the apex, usually 2-lobed, the lobes 1-2 mm long or more than 2 times the length of the body, rarely undivided and simply acute, scarious and puberulent. Inflorescences terminal, solitary, ovate oblong, oblong or pyramidal, 4-14 cm long, 2.5-8.0 cm wide, puberulent to glabrate, the peduncles 3-6 cm long, usually strict, the lowermost branches 3-4-verticillate or disposed as a pair, the upper pairs usually 2 or 3 and opposite; bracts linear or lanceolate, to 1.5 cm long, about equaling the flowers. Flowers sessile; hypanthium rotund, ca. 1.5 mm in diam., the calycine cup ca. 0.5 mm long, glabrous, petaloid, the lobes 4-5, dis- posed as irregular points or to 1 mm long; corolla white, white with yellow throat or green, the tube 5-9 mm long, glabrous outside, pilose within, the lobes 5, oblong, 2.5-4.5 mm long, glabrous; stamens 5, the anthers oblong, ca. 1.5 mm long, sessile or the filaments to 4 mm long; ovarian disc bilobed, to 1 mm long, the style 3-7 mm long, somewhat expanded above the middle. Fruits ovate, oblong or subrotund, 4-6 mm long, ca. 3.5 mm wide, each pyrene 4-5 costate, glabrous, black or purple.
Habit Shrubs or trees
Distribution known from Central America, tropical South America, and Trinidad and Tobago.
Note This is one of the easiest of the Panamanian species of Psychotria to recognize because of the stiff leaves which in the field rattle in the breeze, as well as the usually ghostly white appearance of the inflorescence. Croat on two collections from Barro Colorado Island notes that the flowers are pollinated by black and white butterflies and that the "long-stylar form (is) visited by small, greenish black hummingbirds." One pollinator is the Heliconius but- terfly, a familiar pollinator of the Cucurbitaceae. Steyermark (1972) distinguished P. capitata subsp. amplifolia (Raeuschel) Steyermark as occurring in Central America including Panama, as well as in French Guiana, Surinam, and British Guiana.
Specimen CANAL ZONE: Madden Dam, Dwyer 6938 (MO). Fort Sherman, Hayden 86 (MO). Top of Cerro Pelado, 1 km N of Gamboa, Nee 8826 (MO). Road C-29, 6 km E of Gamboa, Nee 8989 (MO). Fort Sherman, Tyson & Dwyer 1239 (MO). BARRO COLORADO ISLAND: Croat 4344, 4349, 6652, 10910, 10985, 12414, 14932, 14959, 14960 (all MO); Ebinger 570 (MO); Shattuck 1090 (MO). COCLE: El Valle, Allen 1896, 3536 (both MO). Las Margaritas and El Valle, Woodson et al. 1759 (A, MO). COLON: Santa Rita Ridge, Correa & Dressler 890 (MO); Dwyer & Gentry 8351 (MO); Dwyer 8419 (MO); Dwyer et al. 8986, 8996 (both MO). SW of Pifia, Lewis et al. 1851 (MO, UC). Between Rio Piedras and Puerto Pil6n, Lewis et al. 3211 (COL, MO, UC, VEN). Santa Rita Ridge, Lewis et al. 5386 (MO, SCZ, UC); Mori & Kallunki 1788 (MO). Rio Boqueron to Boqueron, Mine #2 N of Peluca Hydro- graphic Station, Mori & Kallunki 2432 (MO). Rio Guanche, 6 km S of Portobelo, Nee & Gentry 8688 (MO). 4 km NW of Salamanca, 13 km NE of Buenos Aires, Nee 9076 (MO). San Lorenzo, Quistgaard 7 (MO). NE of Santa Rita Ridge, Wilbur & Weaver 10820 (MO). DARIEN: Rio Sancanti, ca. 2 mi upstream from Pirid, Duke 14363 (MO). PANAMA: Cerro Jefe, Busey 799 (MO). Cerro Azul, Carrera 6 (MO); Croat 11552 (MO). Cerro Campana, Croat 12101 (MO). Goofy Lake to Cerro Jefe, Correa & Dressler 581 (MO). Cerro Jefe, Davidse & D'Arcy 10, 112 (MO). Panama Viejo, Duke 5743, 5744 (both MO). Cerro Jefe, Duke 9357, 9399 (both MO). Cerro Azul, Dwyer 1877, 3075, 7075 (all MO). Cerro Jefe, Dwyer 8483 (MO). 1.5 mi S of Goofy Lake, Dwyer & Hayden 8031 (GH, MO, US). Cerro Jefe and La Eneida, Dwyer et al. 8209 (MO). Cerro Azul, Ebinger 414 (MO). La Campana, Cerro Campana, Ebinger 934 (MO). Cerro Jefe, Elias & Hayden 1803 (MO, UC, VEN); Gentry 2123, 2127, 6778 (all MO). 4.8 mi N of Highway, W of El Llano, Gentry 5095 (MO). Cerro Azul, Goinez-Poinpa 3393, 3420 (both MO). Rio Tocumen, N of Chepo Road, Hunter & Allen 227 (MO). Cerro Jefe, Kirkbride & Crebbs 35 (MO). Cerro Campana, Lewis et al. 1944 (GH, MO). Altos del Rio Pacora, Lewis et al. 2317 (MO, UC), 2318 (MO, UC, VEN). Cerro Campana, Luteyn 963, 1031 (both MO). Gorgas Memorial Labs, 5-10 km NE of Altos de Pacora, 600 m, Mori & Kallunki 3328 (MO). 4.5 km N of Lago Cerro Azul, 675 m, Nee 7013 (MO). Goofy Lake, Oliver et al. 2680 (MO, UC). Cerro Azul, Porter et al. 4102 (MO); Stimson et al. 5165 (MO); Tyson 2074, 2085, 2092, 4065, 4086 (all MO). Cerro Jefe, Tyson et al. 3334, 3382, 4360, 4370 (all MO). Cermefno, Varela 24 (MO). Arraijan, Woodson et al. 775 (A, MO). SAN BLAS: E of Cangandi-Mandinga airport road, Duke 14795 (MO, OH). Mainland opposite Playon Chico, Gentry 6394 (MO). Between the Atlantic Coast and Conti- nental Divide, opposite Carti, Kennedy 2608 (MO). VERAGUAS: Santa F6, slopes of Cerro Tut6, Gentry 6234, 6235 (both MO).
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