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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 8/21/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 8/21/2013)
Species Cephaelis ipecacuanha (Brot.) A. Rich.
PlaceOfPublication Bull. Fac. Med. 4: 92. 1818.
Synonym Callicocca ipecacuanha Brot., Trans. Linn. Soc. London 6: 137. 1802. TYPE: Brazil, Gomez, not seen. Ipecacuanha officinalis Arruda, Diss. P1. Brazil 44. 1810. Not seen, reprinted in part as Appendix to Koster, Travels in Brazil 2: 374-375. 1817. TYPE: Described from cultivation. Evea ipecacuanha (Brot.) Standley, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 18: 123. 1916. Ouragoga ipecacuanha (Brot.) Farw., Drugg. Circ. 61: 175. 1917.
Description Subshrubs to 0.25 m tall, the stems simple, arising from a rhizome, to 0.8 cm in diam., the nodes often crowded toward the apex of the stem, and often rough with stipular scars. Leaves oblong, obovate oblong, elliptic oblong, oblong sub- rotund, 8-14 cm long, 3.2-9.0 cm wide, obtuse or rounded at the apex, occa- sionally widely cuneate, acuminate, the acumen often vague, usually widely tri- angular, to 1 cm long, basally obtuse, rounded, attenuate acute or cuneate (and the lamina abruptly contracted), occasionally vaguely auriculate, the costa slen- der, prominulous above and beneath, the lateral veins ca. 6, arcuate, uniting well below the margin to form a submarginal undulate vein, with 1-2 smaller lateral veins between a pair of lateral veins, stiffly papyraceous or chartaceous, glabrous or occasionally sparsely puberulent above and beneath; petioles either absent or to 0.5 cm long, glabrous; stipules persistent, appressed to the stem, thin, oblong or ovate rotund, to 11 mm long, the body 3-5 mm long, with ca. 10 linear subulate awns to 7 mm long, these spreading fanlike or curled, glabrous. Inflorescences axillary and/or terminal, glabrous, the peduncles erect or deflexed, 1.2-4.0 cm long, ca. 0.15 cm wide, terminated by a bracteate cluster of flowers, the heads compressed rotund, 1.5 cm in diam., to 3.5 cm wide when bracts spread, the bracts elliptic oblong to subrotund, 8-10 mm long, 3.5-8.0 mm wide, glabrous, stiffly petaloid, with a few marginal, weak, subulate projections at the base, to 1.5 mm long, to 0.2 mm wide basally. Flowers sessile, distylous; hypanthium 0.1-0.2 cm long, glabrous, the calycine cup 0.1-0.2 mm long, eglandular within, glabrous, the teeth 5, unequal, irregular, scarious, tending to be triangular, to 0.5 mm long; corolla tube cylindrical, to 4 mm long, petaloid, glabrous outside, pu- berulent within from filament attachment to the mouth, the lobes 5, oblong or ovate oblong, ca. 1.5 mm long, acute; stamens 5, the anthers exserted or included, narrowly oblong, ca. 1.7 mm long, the filaments short or elongate, attached near the middle of the tube; ovarian disc rotund, ca. 0.3 mm long, the style filamentous, 0.2-0.6 cm long, the stigmas minute. Fruits fleshy, red, oblong or rotund, to 1 cm long, the pyrenes smooth, glabrous or with a small ringlike scar.
Habit Subshrubs
Distribution well distributed throughout tropical America.
Note The roots and rhizome contain an alkaloid emetin, an emetic and expectorant. This drug is known in English as "ipecac" or in Spanish as "Raicilla." The United States Pharmacopeia lists Rio or Brazilian ipecac as Cephaelis acuminata Kar- sten, "known in commerce as 'Cartagena, Nicaragua, or Panama ipecac'" which is supposed to have different pharmacological properties from Rio or Brazil ipe- cac. The name Cephaelis acuminata is an unpublished name which may refer to plants which do not occur in Panama. Panamanian material seen to date is quite uniform taxonomically and agrees with other material from South America which has been going under the name Cephaelis (or Psychotria) ipecacuanha.
Specimen BARRO COLORADO ISLAND: Bartlett & Lasser 16723 (MO); Busey & Croat 237 (MO); Croat 4096, 4104, 4269, 6609, 12427, 15117 (all MO); Hayden 122, 127, 155, 1037 (all MO); Starry 55 (MO). DARIEN: Punta Alegre, Ambulo (MO). Rio Tuira and Rio Paca, Duke 5027 (MO). Line CC, Duke 5237 (MO). Rio Chucunaque, 2-10 mi above Cuna-Dari6n border, Duke 8566 (MO). Without other locality, Sexton 146A, 146B (both MO). SAN BLAS: Headwaters of Rio Mulatupo, Elias 1770 (MO).
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