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Published In: Flora Boreali-Americana (Michaux) 2: 225. 1803. (Fl. Bor.-Amer.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 9/22/2017)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 7/9/2009)
Status: Native


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5. Salix eriocephala Michx. (diamond willow, Missouri willow)

S. missouriensis Bebb

S. rigida Muhl.

S. rigida var. angustata (Pursh) Fernald

S. rigida f. mollis (E.J. Palmer & Steyerm.) Fernald

S. rigida f. subintegra (E.J. Palmer & Steyerm.) Steyerm.

S. rigida var. vestita (Andersson) C.R. Ball

Pl. 555 h–k; Map 2577

Plants shrubs or small to rarely medium trees, 2–6(–15) m tall, clonal from suckers or stem fragmentation. Trunks with the bark relatively smooth or on older trees sometimes finely furrowed, grayish brown to dark brown. Branches usually brittle at the base, reddish brown. Branchlets yellowish brown to reddish brown, not glaucous, sparsely to densely hairy, occasionally becoming glabrous or nearly so with age. Winter buds blunt or rounded at the tip, the scale margins fused toward the base. Leaves alternate. Petioles 3–18 mm long, lacking glands, the upper side hairy. Stipules well-developed, often shed early, rounded to pointed at the tip. Leaf blades 5–10(–14) cm long, mostly 2–5(–8) times as long as wide, narrowly oblong to narrowly elliptic or occasionally obovate, angled or short-tapered to a sharply pointed tip, broadly angled to rounded or shallowly cordate at the base, the margins flat, finely toothed, the upper surface shiny or dull, sparsely hairy, the undersurface glaucous, sparsely hairy, often glabrous with age. Catkins flowering as or slightly before the leaves appear, on distinct, leafy, flowering branchlets; the bracts 0.8–1.6 mm long, entire, rounded at the tip, dark brown, sometimes with lighter margins and/or a pale base, moderately to densely and evenly hairy, persistent at fruiting; the staminate catkins 2.0–4.5 cm long; the pistillate catkins 2–7 cm long. Staminate flowers with 2 stamens, the filaments free or fused toward the base, glabrous; nectary 1. Pistillate flowers with the styles fused to the tip, unbranched, the stigmas 2, relatively broad or plump; nectary 1. Fruits 3.5–7.0 mm long, on stalks 0.6–1.6(–2.8) mm long. 2n=38. April–May.

Scattered nearly throughout the state, but uncommon or absent from most of the Mississippi Lowlands Division (eastern [mostly northeastern] U.S. west to North Dakota, Colorado, and Kansas; Canada). Banks of streams, rivers, and spring branches, sloughs, bases of bluffs, bottomland prairies, wet swales in upland prairies, and fens; also old mine sites, ditches, and moist disturbed areas.

Hybrids between S. eriocephala and S. sericea are produced where the ranges of the species overlap (Argus, 2010). However, the only examples known thus far from Missouri were collected in the St. Louis area by Noah Glatfelter in the 1890s. Generally, such hybrids tend to resemble S. eriocephala, in their prominent stipules, but have leaves that are sparsely to moderately densely short-silky on the undersurface and ovaries that are hairy, as in S. sericea. Hardig et al. (2000) studied morphological variation in a mixed population in New York, concluding that the variation is complex and that hybrid plants are not always intermediate between the parents. Some authors have referred to this hybrid under the names S. ×myricoides Muhl. and S. ×bebbii Gand. (Steyermark, 1963; Yatskievych and Turner, 1990), but the former refers to a different species that does not grow in Missouri and the latter name is invalid. Steyermark (1963) also discussed hybrids between S. caroliniana and S. eriocephala (as S. rigida), but subsequent research has not confirmed this report.



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