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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 7/15/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 7/15/2013)
Species Cardiospermum grandiflorum Swartz
PlaceOfPublication Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 64. 1788.
Note TYPE: Jamaica, Swartz 4726 (US).
Synonym Cardiospermum hirsutum Wild., Sp. P1. 2(1): 467. 1799. TYPE: Guinea (not seen). Cardiospermum vesicarium Humb., Rel. Hist., Voyage 1:39. 1814. TYPE: not seen. Cardiospermum elegans H.B.K., Nov. Gen. Sp. P1. 5:99, tab. 439. 1821. TYPE: Peru, Humboldt & Bonpland (P). Cardiospermum coluteoides H.B.K., Nov. Gen. Sp. P1. 5:101. 1821. TYPE: Brazil, Humboldt & Bonpland (P). Cardiospermum macrophyllum H.B.K., Nov. Gen. Sp. P1. 5:108. 1821. TYPE: Venezuela, Mission del Ori- noco, prope Atures, Humboldt & Bonpland (P). Cardiospermum inflatum Vell., Fl. Flum. 1:150, pl. 22. 1825. TYPE: Brazil (plate seen). Cardiospermum pilosum Vell., Fl. Flum. 1:151, pl. 26. 1825. TYPE: Brazil, oppidum Pharmacopolis (plate seen). Cardiospermum duarteanum Cambess. in St.-Hilare, Fl. Bras. Mer. 1:271. 1828. TYPE: Brazil, Minas Gerais, prope Contendas (not seen). Cardiospermum velutinum Hook & Arn., Bot. Misc. 3:158. 1833. TYPE: Uruguay, Tweedie (K). Cardiospermum barbicule Baker in Olyv., Fl. Trop. Afr. 1:418. 1868. TYPE: Cameroon, Mann (not seen).
Description Robust herbaceous vines; stems 5- or 6-ribbed, pubescent or glabrate. Leaves biternate; petioles terete, 2-5 cm long; leaflets ovate or oblong to obovate, acumi- nate or obtuse, attenuate at the base, broadly serrate or incised-dentate, mem- branous, 5-8 cm long, 2-3.5(4) cm wide, sparsely pubescent to subglabrous; stipules subulate, small. Thyrses long-pedunculate on a tendril; pedicels 4-6 mm long. Flowers white; sepals 4, the 2 outer small, ovate, hispid, the 2 inner oblong, 6-8 mm long, glabrous; petals glabrous, obovate, attenuate, equal to the sepals, the scale on the inside of the petal oblong-obovate, 4-5.5 mm long, glabrous, with a lateral fold running the full length of the margin, the crest emarginate, the de- flexed appendage slender, villous at the apex, extending nearly or all the way to the base of the flower; disc with 2 slender, elongate, corniform glands, 2-3.5 mm long; staminate flowers with stamens to 8 mm long, united into a tube in the lower half, the tube weakly pubescent, the ovary borne within the staminal tube on a stipe to 1.5 mm long, elliptic, glabrous, the styles 3, the ovary, styles and stipe together to 3 mm long; bisexual flowers with the stamens to 4 mm long, glabrous, the filaments not united at the base, the ovary and style together to 6 mm long, the ovary 3-angled, oblong-elliptic, conspicuously hispid on the angles, the style 3 mm long, 3-branched in the upper half. Fruits elongate, obovate or elliptic capsules, membranous, inflated, acutely 3-angled, 5-6 cm long, acute at both ends, glabrous or nearly so; seeds globose, black, ca. 7 mm diam., the hilum round, conspicuous but much narrower than the body of the seed.
Habit vines
Note Cardiospermum grandiflorum is distinguished by its large flowers and fruits. This species is much less variable than most species of the genus. Flowering oc- curs principally in the early dry season with fruits maturing as early as January.
Distribution ranges throughout continental tropical America and tropical Africa.
Note  According to Adams (1972) it is sparsely scattered in the West Indies. The species is ecologically variable. In Panama it is known from tropical dry forest, premontane moist forest, tropical moist forest, and tropical wet forest at low and middle elevations.
Specimen BOCAS DEL TORO: Santa Catalina, Blackwell et al. 2717 (MO, PMA), 2725 (MO). Chan- guinola to 5 mi S, Lewis et al. 859 (GH, MO, US). CANAL ZONE: Near Tropical Survival School, Correa s.n. (DUKE). Radar Station Road, Croat 9093 (MO, SCZ). Near Tropical Survival School, Gauger s.n. (MO, PMA, SCZ). Fort Kobbe, Gentry 2860 (MO). Cerro Galra, 350-400 m, Gentry 6618 (DUKE, MO), 619 (MO). Without exact locality, Green- man & Greenman 5163 (MO). Gamboa, Greenman & Greenman 5169 (MO). Pedro Miguel, Killip 3349 (US). Empire to Mandinga, Piper 5527 (US). Between Gorgona and Mamei, 10-100 m, Pittier 2245 (NY, US). K-9 Road, Sharp 13 Dec. 1962 (MO, SCZ). Road K-15 near Huille, Smith et al. 3279. Near Summit, Standley 25818 (US). Balboa, Standley 26056 (MO, US), 26064 (S, US). Corozal Road near Panama, Standley 26782 (US). Balboa, Stand- ley 27143 (US). Gamboa, Standley 28311 (US). Balboa, Standley 29283 (US), 29292 (US). Near Summit, Standley 29535 (US). Obisbo, Standley 31739 (US). Balboa-Gorgas Memorial Laboratory, White & White 61 (A, MO, NY). Vic. of Miraflores Lake, White 261 (MO, US). COCLE: El Valle, ca. 500 m, Hunter & Allen 362 (G, GH, MO). El Valle, Lewis et al. 2580 (MO, SCZ). Bismark above Penonome, Williams 274 (NY, US). COLON: Rio Gatuncillo, vic. of Santa Rosa (MO). PANAMA: Taboga Island, Allen 93 (F), 1666 (GH, MO, US). Chepo, Car- rasquilla & Escobar 279 (MO, PMA); Escobar et al. 279 (MO, PMA). Nuevo Granada, Hayes 784 (NY). Sabanas near Chepo, 30 m, Hunter & Allen 93 (G, MO, NY, US). Cerro Campana, ca. 750 m, Kennedy 2046 (DUKE, MO, PMA). Without exact locality, Kennedy et al. 2079 (MO). Vera Cruz, Lewis et al. 3002 (MO, SCZ). Panama City, MacBride 2600 (F, G, US). Sabanas N of Panama City, Paul s.n. (US). Old Panama, Porterfield s.n. (NY). Arraijan Road, Sharp 11 Dec. 1962 (SCZ). Bella Vista, Standley 25319 (GH, US). Taboga Island, Standley 27111 (US). Juan Franco Race Track near Panama, Standley 27677 (US). Taboga Island, Standley 27907 (US). Juan Diaz, Standley 30559 (US). 4 mi E of Chepo, Tyson 5358 (SCZ). VERAGUAS: 1-3 km above Escuela Agricola de Alto Piedra, 700-800 m, Croat 25984 (MO). 1-2 mi above Santa Fe, Gentry 3042 (MO). 1-5 km from Escuela Agricola Alto de Piedra, Mori & Kallunki 5330 (CAS, MO, PMA, TEX). WITHOUT EXACT LOCALITY: Hayes 151 (US); Kennedy 2287 (DUKE, MO, PMA).
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