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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 1/29/2013)
 

Flora Data (Last Modified On 1/29/2013)
Species GUAZUMA ULMIFOLIA Lam.
PlaceOfPublication Encycl. Meth. Bot. 3: 52. 1789
Reference Standley, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 27: pl. 52. 1928; Johnston, Sargentia 8: 202. 1949.-Fig. 7.
Synonym Theobroma Guazuma L., Sp. PT. 782. 1753. Guazuma polybotra Cav., Ic. Deser. PT. 3: 51, t.299. 1796. Bubroma Guazuma (L.) Willd. in L., Sp. PT. ed. 4[i.e. 5], 3: 1423. 1802. Bubroma polybotryum (Cav.) Willd., Enum. PT. Hort. Berol. 806. 1809. Bubroma Invira Willd., loc. cit. 806. 1809. Guazuma tomentosa H. B. K., Nov. Gen. Sp. P1. 5: 320. 1823. Bubroma tomentosum (H. B. K.) Spreng. in L., Syst. Veg. ed. 16, 3: 332. 1826. Bubroma grandiflorum Willd. ex Spreng. in L., Syst. Veg. ed. 16, 3: 332. 1826. Guazuma Bubroma Tussac, FT. Antilles 4: 69. 1827. Guazuma tomentosa var. monpoxensis G. Don, Gen. Syst. Gard. Bot. 1: 523. 1831. Guazuma tomentosa var. cumanensis G. Don, loc. cit. 523. 1831. Guazuma Blumei G. Don, loc. cit. 523. 1831. Guazuma grandiflora (Willd. ex Spreng.) G. Don, loc. cit. 523. 1831. Guazuma Invira (Willd.) G. Don, loc. cit. 523. 1831. Guazuma utilis Poepp. & Endl., Nov. Gen. Sp. P1. 3: 72, t.283. 1844. Guazuma parvifolia A. Rich., Bot., P1. Vasc. in Ramon de la Sagra, Hist. Phys. Pol. Nat. Cuba 190. 1845. Diuroglossum rufescens Turcz., Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou 25(2): 156. 1852. Guazuma ulmifolia var. glabra K. Schum. in Mart., Fl. Bras. 12(3): 81. 1886. Guazuma ulinifolia var. tomentella K. Schum. in Mart., loc. cit. 81. 1886. Guazuma ulmifolia var. tomentosa (H. B. K.) K. Schum. in Mart., loc. cit. 81. 1886. Guazuma ulmifolia var. velutina K. Schum. in Mart., loc cit. 81. 1886. Theobroma tomentosa (H. B. K.) Gomez de la Meza, Anal. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 19: 217. 1890. Guazuma Guazuma (L.) Cockerell, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 19: 95. 1892. Guazuma Guazuma var. ulmifolia (Lam.) 0. Ktze, Rev. Gen. P1. 3(3): 24. 1898. Guazuma coriacea Rusby, Bull. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 4: 332. 1907.
Description Tree 2-25 m. in height, the trunk 5-60 cm. in diam., the young branches to- mentellous to puberulous. Leaves with a terete petiole 0.5-2 cm. long, tomentellous to puberulous, the stipules small and triangular, the blade ovate, ovate-oblong, oblong or seldom narrowly oblong, slightly to very much inaequilateral, rounded to cordate at the base, long-acuminate at the apex, ca. 6-16 cm. long and 2-6 cm. wide, membranous to chartaceous, sometimes subcoriaceous, the margins irregu- larly dentate to serrate, the upper surface shortly puberulous, seldom glabrous, gener- ally scabridulous and sometimes somewhat lustrous, the lower surface puberulous to tomentellous, the pubescence either of only appressed hairs or of appressed and spreading hairs, 3- to 7-nerved at the base, the nervation reticulate and prominent beneath. Inflorescences thyrsiform, the ultimate axes scorpioid, the axes and bracts densely puberulous to tomentellous. Flowers with a pedicel ca. 3-6 mm. long; calyx ca. 3 mm. in diam., divided irregularly into 3 lobes ca. 3 mm. long, densely puberulous to tomentellous outside and glabrous or nearly so inside; petals obovate, slightly bifid at the apex, ca. 4 mm. long (without appendage) and 2 mm. wide, the claw ca. 0.5-1 mm. long, the appendage ca. 5 mm. long and bifid for ca. 3 mm., yellowish, puberulous outside, glabrous inside; staminal tube 1.2-1.5 mm. long, glabrous outside, loosely puberulous and with simple hairs on the upper part inside, the filaments ca. 0.8-1 mm. long, the staminodes ca. 0.8-1 mm. long and loosely puberulous; anthers very small, reddish; ovary ovoid to globose, ca. 0.8-1 mm. long and 0.8 mm. broad, shortly puberulous especially on the upper half; style and stigma ca. 1-1.5 mm. long. Capsule oblong, oblong-ellipsoid to globose, rounded on both ends, 1.5-4 cm. long and 1.2-2.5 cm. broad, black at maturity, tuberculate, the tubercles short, stout and more or less pyramidal, puberulous when young, indehiscent (the tubercles separating irregularly at maturity to a greater or less degree), somewhat pulpy inside; seeds numerous, obovoid, ca. 2.5-3.5 mm. long and 1.8-2 mm. wide, the testa maculate.
Habit Tree
Distribution A polymorphous species widely distributed throughout the American tropics; frequent in pastures and second-growth forest, usually on dry soil, sometimes on swampy soil, chiefly near sea level.
Elevation near sea level.
Note In his recent revision of the genus, G. F. Freytag (Ceiba 1: 193-225, pl. 1-4, figs. 1951) considers that G. ulmifolia is composed of two separate species: G. ulmifolia and G. tomentosa H. B. K., the differential characters being the de- hiscence or indehiscence of the capsules, the form of the base of the petals, and the form and pubescence of the leaves. Study of abundant material from Panama and Central America, however, does not permit me to agree with Freytag. I con- sider the variations of the petals and leaves as extreme variations within a single species, all intermediate stages being present, and I believe that the capsule is always indehiscent or sometimes very incompletely loculicidally dehiscent. The mucilaginous sap of the guacimo is used sometimes to clarify sirup in the manufacture of sugar and the bark contains a tough fiber employed for cordage; the capsule contains a small quantity of sweet edible pulp.
Specimen BOCA DEL TORO: region of Almirante, Cooper 354, Cooper & Slater 20; Changuinola Valley, Dunlap 145a; vicinity of Chiriqui Lagoon, Cocoa Cay, von Wedel 2875; vicinity of Chiriqui Lagoon, Johns Creek, von Wedel 2764; vicinity of Chiriqui Lagoon, von Wedel 1183, 1269A, 1324. CANAL ZONE: Isthmus of Panama, Hayes 171; area west of Limon Bay, Gatun Locks and Gatun Lake, road to Battery VII, Johnston 1659; near Friioles, Rio Agua Salud, Piper 5870; Barro Colorado Island, Aviles 23; second road past Summit, Harvey 5181; around El Paraiso, alt. 30-100 m., Pittier 2579; Chivi-Chivi Trail, 2 miles above Red Tank, Maxon & Harvey 6572; vicinity of Miraflores Lake, G. White 183; vicinity of Miraflores Lake, Cocoli Island, P. White 305; near Cocoli lighthouse, P. White 92; Corrosion Labora- tory, vicinity of Miraflores Locks, Stern, Chambers, Dwyer, Ebinger 79; along the old Las Cruces Trail, between Fort Clayton and Corozal, Standley 29012; Ancon Hill, 600 ft. ele., R. S. Williams 2; Sabana of Panama, Pittier 2547; region of Balboa, Johansen 5; Madden Dam area near road, Transisthmian Highway, Stern, Chambers, Dwyer, Ebinger 43; Kobbe, Harvey 5010; locality unknown, Christopherson 176. CHIRIQUi: Progresso, Cooper & Slater 315; vicinity of David, 30-80 m., Pittier 3368. COCL% Penonom6, R. S. Williams 347. COL6N: vicinity of Gatuncillo, Piper 5634. DARIEN: Marraganti, R. S. Williams 636; near El Real, on edge of creek, Stern, Chambers, Dwyer, Ebinger 457; vicinity of Pinogana, ca. 20 m., Allen 928, 4279. HERRERA: vicinity of Ocu, 100 m., Allen 4058. PANAMA: drowned forest near Vigia and San Juan on Rio Pequeni, 66 m., Dodge, Steyermark S Allen 16560, 16569; along the Corozal Road, near Panama, Standley 26878; Bella Vista, Standley 25322; along sea beach from Panama Vieja to Bella Vista, Allen 828; vicinity of Bella Vista, Piper 5328; Punta Paitilla, Piper 5400; between Sabanas and Rio Yguana, Macbride 2668; Sabanas, Bro. Paul 12; near Tapia River, Juan Diaz region, Macxon & Harvey 6615, 6619; Taboga Island, Hayes 612, Miller 1959, Pittier 3524, Standley 27084, 27977, Woodson, Allen & Seibert 1535; San Jose Island, Erlanson 76, 277, Johnston 353. PROVINCE UNKNOWN: Anderson s. n., Hayes 732, 796, Moore 33, Seemann 94.
 
 
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