8. Cratoneuron (Sull.) Spruce 牛角藓属 niu jiao xian shu
Cat. Musc. 21. 1867. Hypnum subgen. Cratoneuron (Sull.) Schimp., Syn. Musc. Eur. 613. 1864. Hypnum sect. Cratoneuron Sull. in Gray, Manual (ed. 2) 673. 1856.
Drepanophyllaria Müll. Hal., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital., n.s., 3: 114. 1896.
Plants medium-sized to large, delicate or rigid, sometimes robust, green, dark green, or yellowish green. Stems erect or erect-ascending, sometimes prostrate or floating, pinnately branched, rarely simple; rhizoids always present; branches short, curved when dry; paraphyllia foliose. Stem leaves distantly foliate, erect or slightly curved, broadly ovate or ovate-lanceolate, usually abruptly acuminate toward apex; margins mostly serrulate; costae single, thick, ending below the apex or shortly excurrent; median leaf cells elongate-rhomboidal, 2–4 times as long as wide, thin-walled; alar cells distinctly differentiated, strongly convex, extending close to costa at leaf base. Dioicous. Setae 30–40 mm long, reddish brown; capsules elongate-ellipsoidal to cylindrical, reddish brown; opercula conic at base, apiculate to shortly rostrate at apex; annuli differentiated, usually 2–3 rows of small cells; exostome teeth narrowly lanceolate; endostome segments perforate, crack-like; basal membrane high; cilia 2–3, short, densely papillose, nodulose. Spores 15–18 mm in diameter, finely papillose.