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Published In: Musci Frondosi Inediti Archipelagi Indici 99. 1846. (Musc. Frond. Ined. Archip. Ind.) Name publication detail
 

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Notes     (Last Modified On 3/20/2009)
general taxon notes:
Distichophyllum, consisting of more than 100 species worldwide, is the largest genus of the Hookeriaceae in China. The genus has a pantropical distribution range with many centers of species diversity in the Old and New Worlds. The southwestern region of China (Guizhou, Sichuan, and Yunnan), together with the regions of Malesia and Australasia, are three important centers of species diversification. There are 12 species and 7 varieties in China.

 

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7. Distichophyllum Dozy & Molk. 黄藓属 huang xian shu
Musci Frond. Ined. Archip. Ind. 99. 1846.
 
Plants usually soft, yellowish green, somewhat glossy, in dense flat mats. Stems flat, sparingly branched; central strand absent. Leaves in 6–8 rows, heterophyllous; dorsal leaves usually smaller and different in shape from the lateral and terminal ones, crowded, complanate, lingulate, oblanceolate, obovate to spathulate, pointed or rounded at apex; margins plane, entire, a narrow border of elongated cells differentiated; costa single, ending near or above midleaf; upper leaf cells rounded to hexagonal, smooth, laxer at base. Autoicous. Perichaetial leaves small, lingulate or ovate-lanceolate, border not differentiated, usually ecostate. Setae slender, smooth or papillose, reddish brown; capsules erect or inclined, ovoid to oblong-ovoid with a distinct neck; exothecial cells moderately to strongly collenchymatous; exostome teeth narrowly lanceolate, hookerioid with numerous cross-lamellae and a deep median groove; endostome segments lanceolate, papillose, perforate; basal membrane high; cilia absent; opercula conic, long-rostrate. Calyptrae horn-shaped, finely fringed at base. Spores small, weakly to moderately papillose.
 
In stem cross sections, all Chinese species of Distichophyllum lack a central strand, while most species outside China exhibit a well differentiated hyalodermis and an outer cortical layer consisting of cells smaller than the cells of the inner cortex and central cylinder; the outermost row of cortical cells next to the hyalodermal cells is dark brownish in sharp contrast to the transparent inner cortical cells.
 
 
 

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1. Leaves strongly dimorphic; gemmiferous leaves broadly and roundly ovate with a large, constricted hood-like apical lobe........................................................................... 6. D. meizhiae
1. Leaves not strongly dimorphic; specialized gemmiferous leaves absent.................................2
2. Leaves distinctly carinate....................................................................1. D. carinatum
2. Leaves not carinate......................................................................................................... 3
3. Leaf apices long-cuspidate or aristate, acumens more than 100 µm long................4. D. cuspidatum
3. Leaf apices round, apiculate, acute, acuminate or mucronate, acumens less than 100 µm long.........4
4. Plants small; leaves less than 2.5 mm long...............................................................................5
4. Plants large; leaves more than 2.5 mm long......................................................................17
5. Leaf apices round to obtusely muticous or apiculate...........................................................6
5. Leaf apices acute, acuminate or stoutly mucronate...........................................................12
6. Leaf apices without a differentiated border, denticulate near apex...... D. obtusifolium (reported from China)
6. Leaf border reaching apices, entire throughout.......................................................7
7. Submarginal cells distinctly smaller than the paracostal cells in upper one third of lamina................8
7. Submarginal cells not smaller than the paracostal cells in upper one third of lamina........................9
8. Leaf borders thin and narrow..................................................................7. D. mittenii in part
8. Leaf borders stout and broad..............................................................2b. D. cirratum var. elmeri
9. Leaf cells large, lax, more than 18 µm wide.............................................................10
9. Leaf cells small, dense, less than 18 µm wide..........................................................11
10. Leaves broadly obovate to nearly orbicular; laminal cells more than 30 µm wide.....................................
.........................................................................................10a. D. subnigricaule var. subnigricaule
10. Leaves obovate to oblanceolate; laminal cells smaller, less than 30 µm wide............................................
.........................................................................................10b. D. subnigricaule var. hainanense
11.  Leaves mostly 2 mm long, broadly spathulate.........................................12. D. wanianum
11. Leaves mostly l mm long, oblanceolate to obovate.................................. 8b. D. oblongum var. fanjingensis
12. Leaf borders strong and broad, 20–50 µm wide, consisting of 2–4 rows of thick-walled, elongate to linear cells.................................................................................................................................................... 13
12. Leaf borders not strong, narrow, 10–20 µm wide, consisting of 1–2(–3) rows of thin to moderately thick-walled, elongate to linear cells......................................................................................................... 16
13. At least 3–5 rows of submarginal cells distinctly smaller than the paracostal cells in upper 1/3 of lamina..
...................................................................................2a. D. cirratum var. cirratum
13. Only 1–2 rows of submarginal cells slightly smaller than or the same size as the paracostal cells in upper 1/3 of lamina..............................................................................................14
14. Leaves more than 2 mm long; upper laminal cells large, more than 20 µm in diameter............................
.........................................................................3c. D. collenchymatosum var. pseudosinense
14. Leaves less than 2 mm long; upper laminal cells small, less than 20 µm in diameter............................ 15
15. Leaves oblong to oblanceolate............................................8a. D. oblongum var. oblongum
15. Leaves obovate to spathulate...................................D. jungermannioides (reported from China)
16. Upper laminal cells large, more than 20 µm wide; leaf apical acumens stout, more than 50 µm long (except var. brevirostratum), often twisted.............. 3a. D. collenchymatosum var. collenchymatosum
16. Upper laminal cells small, less than 20 µm wide; leaf apical acumens weak, less than 50 µm long, not twisted, at times not well differentiated.............................................................................. 5. D. maibarae
17. Leaves incompletely bordered..............................................................................18
17. Leaves bordered all around................................................................................. 19
18. Only apical portion of the leaves lacking a border....................... D. obtusifolium (reported from China)
18. Upper 1/3 of lamina lacking a border..............................................9. D. osterwaldii
19. Leaf apices rounded or apiculate, with a tiny mucro.......................................................20
19. Leaf apices acute to mucronate; acumens mostly long and stout, often twisted.......................21
20. Upper laminal cells homogeneous, large.......................................................11. D. tortile in part
20. Upper laminal cells not homogeneous, submarginal cells distinctly smaller than the paracostal cells...
............................................................................................................ 7. D. mittenii in part
21. Upper leaf cells thin-walled, not collenchymatous; setae papillose................................ 11. D. tortile in part
21. Upper leaf cells thin- to moderately thick-walled, slightly collenchymatous; setae smooth..........................
...............................................................3b. D. collenchymatosum var. brevirostratum
 

 

 
 
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