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Published In: Species Muscorum Frondosorum 60. 1801. (Sp. Musc. Frond.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 2/15/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project data     (Last Modified On 2/15/2011)
Discussion: Encalypta species often have lingulate leaves with crenulate margins and strongly differentiated upper and lower leaf cells. The lower leaf cells are usually enlarged, rectangular, smooth, and hyaline with thick, reddish transverse end walls, while the upper cells are usually small, isodiametric, pluripapillose on both surfaces, and evenly thickened. Its capsules are cylindric, and often furrowed. The calyptrae in Encalypta are long, campanulate-mitrate, and shaped like an antique candle snuffer, hence its common name: extinguisher moss. A nearly identical type of calyptra is also found in Schlotheimia. The phylogenetic relationships of the Encalyptaceae are unsettled due to conflicting evidence provided by its gametophyte and sporophyte. The family is sometimes placed close to the Orthotrichaceae (Dixon 1932) because of its ribbed capsules, mitrate calyptrae, and double peristome. The peristome in the Encalyptaceae however, is extremely variable in form (see Edwards 1984), and its irregular peristomial pattern can be difficult to interpret. In at least some species of Encalypta with double peristomes, the endostomial segments are positioned opposite rather than alternating with the exostome teeth (see Edwards 1984, Vitt 1984). On the basis of gametophytic leaf features, such as its smooth, hyaline basal cells and quadrate, pluripapillose upper cells with c-shaped, coronate papillae on both surfaces the family has also been aligned with the Calymperaceae or Pottiaceae (Crum & Anderson 1981, Vitt 1984). Recently Goffinet & Cox (2000), on the basis of molecular evidence, suggested a relationship of the family with the Funariaceae.


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 Encalypta Hedw., Sp. Musc. Frond. 60. 1801.


Plants small to robust, tufted, yellowish green to greenish brown, brown below, often glaucous. Stems erect, irregularly branched, radiculose, sclerodermis present, central strand weakly differentiated or absent. Leaves erect or erect-spreading from a slightly clasping base when moist, folded and contorted when dry, oblong-ovate or lingulate; apices acute, muticous or apiculate; margins crenulate, plane or recurved; costa single, subpercurrent to short-excurrent, bulging dorsally, shiny or dull, smooth or variously papillose at back; upper lamina cells quadrate-angular, thick-walled, pluripapillose with coronate-digitate papillae on both surfaces, basal cells rectangular, longitudinal walls thin, hyaline or pale, transverse walls thickened and colored, basal marginal cells elongate, walls evenly thickened, alar cells not differentiated. Autoicous. Setae elongate, erect or curved, twisted. Capsules erect, cylindric, orange-brown to pale golden, urn smooth or furrowed; stomata superficial or indistinctly immersed; opercula conic-rostrate; annuli simple or complex, deciduous; peristome absent, single, or double, teeth narrowly triangular or filiform. Calyptrae long, campanulate-mitrate, pale, golden-yellow, lobed or fringed at base.


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