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Published In: Species Muscorum Frondosorum, Supplementum Secundum 1: 44. 1823. (Sp. Musc. Frond., Suppl. 2) Name publication detail

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 9/20/2009)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 10/8/2017)
Plant Category: Mosses
General Reference:

Notes     (Last Modified On 10/8/2017)

Entosthodon is characterized by an erect and elongate seta, symmetric, pyriform capsule with the mouth little altered when deoperculated, when present a single rather well developed or rudimentary peristome, and an inflated, cucullate calyptra. A genus of about 14 species in the Neotropics; nine species recognized for the tropical Andes. Mid to high montane, in open sites, also in páramo and wet puna; on exposed soil. Several of the common species, e.g., Entosthodon bonplandii, are very frequent in montane pasture slopes and along banks of mule or foot trails. The species of Entosthodon are likely more common than presently known for much of the tropical Andes and are readily overlooked by collectors due their small stature. Entosthodon has, and still is placed in Funaria by some authors; this treatment follows Fife, the present authority of this genus and family.
Entosthodon se caracteriza por una seta erecta y elongada, cápsula simétrica, piriforme con boca poco alterada cuando desoperculada, peristoma, si presente, simple más bien desarrollado o rudimentario, y una caliptra cuculada inflada. Este género tiene cerca de 14 especies en el Neotrópico. Crece en sitios abiertos, montano medios a altos, también en páramo y puna húmeda; sobre suelo expuesto. Varias de las especies comunes, e.g., Entosthodon bonplandii, son muy frecuentes en pastizales de laderas y a lo largo de bancos en caminos de mula.
Entosthodon and Funaria are the two most common genera, and likely to be confused, the following key may help to separate the more typical taxa:
1. Upper leaves mostly 2 mm or less long, apex acute, short to long acuminate or obtuse-rounded; seta 15 mm or less long; capsules mostly erect; peristome absent or reduced … Entosthodon
1. Upper leaves mostly 3-3.5 mm long, apex acute-apiculate; seta often 20 mm or more long; capsules variously inclined to subpendulous; peristome present … Funaria
Entosthodon y Funaria son los dos géneros más comunes, y probablemente sean confundidos, la siguiente clave puede ayudar a separar los taxa más típicos.
1. Hojas superiores mayormente 2 mm o menos largas, ápice agudo, corto a largo acuminado u obtuso-redondeado; seta 15 mm o menos larga; cápsulas mayormente erectas; peristoma ausente o reducido ... Entosthodon
1. Hojas superiores mayormente 3-3.5 mm de largo, ápice agudo-apiculado; seta generalmente 20 mm o más larga; cápsulas variadamente inclinadas a subpéndulas; peristoma presente ... Funaria
Entosthodon andicola Mitt. [J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 12: 244. 1869. Type: Ecuador. Andes Quitenses, Jameson s.n. (NY).] has been recorded from Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. The collection at NY has been annotated as Physcomitrium sp. by A. Fife.


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Plants small, solitary or forming small tufts, glossy green to golden-reddish brown. Stems erect, simple or few branched by innovations. Leaves distally comose, leafless or leaves reduced below, oblong- to obovate-lanceolate, apex acute, short acuminate or obtuse; margins plane, entire or bluntly to rather sharply serrate; costae subpercurrent to short excurrent; upper and median cells large, broadly rhombic, short to long hexagonal; lower and basal cells oblong to rectangular, lax; marginal cells forming a border or not. Autoicous. Perichaetia terminal; leaves similar or somewhat larger. Setae elongate, smooth or papillose distally or throughout. Capsules erect to inclined, urn short to somewhat long pyriform; opercula flat or convex; peristome absent or present with exostome teeth 16, straight or sigmoid; endostome usually not well developed, often peristome reduced and usually set below urn mouth. Calyptrae cucullate, smooth and naked. Spores variously ornamented.


Plantas pequeñas, solitarias o formando manojos pequeños, de color verde brillante hasta pardo dorado-rojizo. Tallos erectos, simples o poco ramificados por innovaciones. Hojas distalmente comosas, sin hojas u hojas reducidas abajo, oblongas- a obovado-lanceoladas, ápices agudos, cortos-acuminados u obtusos; márgenes planos, enteros u obtusamente hasta claramente serrados; costa subpercurrente hasta corto-excurrente; células superiores y mediales grandes, anchamente rómbicas, corto- hasta largo-hexagonales; células inferiores y basales oblongas hasta rectangulares, laxas; células marginales formando un borde o no. Autoicas. Periquecios terminales; hojas similares o algo mayores. Setas alargadas, lisas o papilosas distalmente o en toda la superficie. Cápsulas erectas hasta inclinadas, urna corta hasta algo largo-piriforme; opérculo aplanado o convexo; peristoma ausente o presente con exostoma de 16 dientes, rectos o sigmoides; endostoma generalmente no bien desarrollado, a menudo peristoma reducido y generalmente localizado debajo de la boca de la urna. Caliptra cuculada, lisa y desnuda. Esporas diversamente ornamentadas.


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Keys to Entosthodon adapted from Fife (1987).
1. Capsules inclined to horizontal, asymmetric, mouths ± oblique, peristome teeth sigmoid … 2.
1. Capsules erect, symmetric, mouths transverse, teeth, if present, not sigmoid … 3.
2. Capsules 2-3 mm long, with well-defined, gradually tapered neck ca. one-half their total length; leaves unbordered; apical cells120-180(-240) mm long … E. laevis
2. Capsules less than 2 mm long, with a weakly defined neck ca. one-third or less their total length; leaves bordered by 1-4 rows of longer, thick-walled cells; apical cells 30-90 mm long … E. radians
3. Setae coarsely papillose in upper 2/3; leaves terminating in a long, flexuose, yellowish arista … E. lindigii
3. Setae smooth throughout; leaves obtuse, acute to acuminate, lacking a flexuose, yellowish arista … 4.
4. Leaves either serrate or bordered by differentiated marginal cells distally … 5.
4. Leaves entire, border absent … 6.
5. Leaf border absent; leaves spathulate, to 3.5 mm long, very strongly toothed; capsules to 3.5 mm long … E. mathewsii
5. Leaf border present; leaves obovate to spathulate, less than 2.5 mm long, weakly to strongly toothed, rarely entire; capsules less than 2.8 mm long … E. bonplandii
6. Leaves ovate-lanceolate; peristome rudimentary or absent; spores usually with trilete scars … E. jamesonii
6. Leaves obovate or lingulate; peristome double or single, with well developed teeth; spores lacking scares … 7.
7. Leaves firm, scarcely contorted (dry); capsule 1.5-3.0 mm long; opercula mammillate or strongly convex … E. laxus (see also E. subaloma)
7. Leaves soft and contorted(dry); capsule less than 2 mm; opercula planar … E. obtusifolius
1. Cápsulas inclinadas a horizontales, asimétricas, boca ± oblicua, dientes del peristoma sigmoides ... 2.
1. Cápsulas erectas, simétricas, boca transversa, dientes, si presentes, no sigmoides ... 3.
2. Cápsulas de 2-3 mm de largo, con cuello bien definido, gradualmente atenuados en casi la mitad de su longitud total; hojas no bordeadas; células apicales 120-180(-240) mm de largo ... E. laevis
2. Cápsulas < 2 mm de largo, con cuello débilmente definido de casi un tercio o menos de su longitud total; hojas bordeadas por 1-4 hileras de células más largas de paredes gruesas; células apicales 30-90 mm de largo ... E. radians
3. Seta ásperamente papilosa en los 2/3 superiores; hojas terminando en una arista larga, flexuosa, amarillenta ... E. lindigii
3. Seta totalmente lisa; hojas obtusas, agudas a acuminadas, arista amarillenta flexuosa ausente ... 4.
4. Hojas serradas o bordeadas por células marginales diferenciadas distalmente ... 5.
4. Hojas enteras, borde ausente ... 6.
5. Borde de la hoja ausente; hojas espatuladas, hasta 3.5 mm de largo, muy fuertemente dentadas; cápsulas hasta 3.5 mm de largo ... E. mathewsii
5. Borde de la hoja presente; hojas obovadas a espatuladas, < 2.5 mm de largo, débil a fuertemente dentadas, raramente enteras; cápsulas < 2.8 mm de largo ... E. bonplandii
6. Hojas ovado-lanceoladas; peristoma rudimentario o ausente; esporas usualmente con marcas triletes ... E. jamesonii
6. Hojas obovadas o linguiformes; peristoma doble o simple, con dientes bien desarrollados; esporas sin marcas ... 7.
7. Hojas firmes, escasamente contortas (secas); cápsula de 1.5-3.0 mm de largo, opérculo mamilado o fuertemente convexo ... E. laxus(ver E. subaloma)
7. Hojas suaves y contortas (secas); cápsula de menos de 2 mm; opérculo plano ... E. obtusifolius
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