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Published In: Species Muscorum Frondosorum, Supplementum Secundum 1: 44. 1823. (Sp. Musc. Frond., Suppl. 2) Name publication detail

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The generic name Entosthodon is a combination of the Greek, entosthen (from within) and odon (tooth), in reference to the insertion of the peristome teeth within the mouth of the capsule. Fife (1982, 1985) considered Entosthodon to have been derived from Funaria. It is the most variable genus in the Funariaceae and Fife (1982, 1985) divided it into three subgenera; E. subgen. Plagiodus (Mitt.) Fife, (E. obtusatus) with inclined, asymmetric capsules, double peristomes with sigmoid teeth, opercula with mostly spirally arranged cells, and usually insulate-baculate ornamented spores; E. subgen. Murcia Fife (monotypic for the North Temperate E. fascicularis (Hedw.) C. Müll.) with erect capsules, a reduced double peristome, opercula with cells in more or less straight rows, a small capsule mouth, and short exothecial cells; and E. subgen. Entosthodon (all other Central American species) which is like E. subgen. Murcia but has a capsule mouth about the same diameter as the urn and elongate exothecial cells. Entosthodon differs from Funaria in having homogeneous upper exothecial cells rather than bands of cuneate, thick-walled cells that result in sulcate capsules, by its simple, non-revoluble rather than compound, revoluble annulus, by its erect to weakly sigmoid exostome teeth that are not fused at the tips into a lattice disk, and by its intermediate sized, variably ornamented spores rather than small, uniformly verrucate or verrucate-lirate spores. From Physcomitrium it can be told apart by the cucullate rather than mitrate calyptrae, by the mostly plano‑convex rather than rostrate opercula, and by the typically elongate rather than isodiametric exothecial cells.


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Entosthodon Schwaegr., Sp. Musc. Frond. Suppl. 2(1): 44. 1823

Physcomitrium sect. Entosthodon (Schwaegr.) C. Müll., Linnaea 18: 696. 1845. Funaria subgen. Entosthodon (Schwaegr.) Lindb., Musci Scand. 18. 1879. Funaria sect. Entosthodon (Schwaegr.) Braithw., Brit. Moss Fl. 2: 130. 1890. 

Bergia Fürnr., Flora 12 (Erg. 2): 26. 1829, hom. illeg., non L., Mant. Pl. 2: 152, 241.   1771 [Elatinaceae].

Amphoritheca Hampe, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. sér. 5, 3: 339. 1865. Entosthodon subgen.   Amphoritheca (Hampe) Mitt., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 12: 242. 1869. 

Plants bright‑ to yellow‑ or brown‑green, small to medium‑sized, usually gregarious in lax to dense tufts. Stems reddish brown, erect, usually branched by subperigonial innovations, usually more or less naked below (except for rhizoids), leaves equally spaced or clustered toward stem apices, sclerodermis and central strand well-developed. Leaves mostly erect‑ to wide‑spreading and usually contorted when dry, spreading and concave when moist, oblong‑ovate to obovate to spathulate, obtuse, acute or acuminate, often cuspidate; margins entire or serrate above, entire below, plane to narrowly incurved above, plane below; costa ending well below apex to percurrent, rarely excurrent, with a single large (dorsal) stereid band; upper cells subquadrate to oblong‑hexagonal or short‑rectangular, thin‑ to firm‑walled, smooth, lower cells long‑rectangular, border present or absent, alar cells not or weakly differentiated. Autoicous or rarely polygamous or paroicous. Perigonial stems shorter than the perichaetial stems to which they give rise, bracts often not differentiated; paraphyses numerous, with swollen terminal cells. Perichaetial leaves sometimes longer and more acuminate than vegetative leaves. Setae orange to red‑brown, rarely yellow, straight to flexuose, rarely strongly hygroscopic, smooth or rarely roughened. Capsules broadly pyriform to narrowly cylindric-pyriform, erect to inclined, asymmetric to symmetric, often wrinkled to sulcate when dry; mouth transverse or sometimes oblique; neck 1/4–1/2 capsule length; exothecial cells mostly elongate, rarely isodiametric, typically becoming oblate at the mouth; stomata mostly phaneroporous, rarely immersed; opercula mostly plano‑convex, rarely conic or short‑rostrate; annuli not differentiated, rudimentary or simple and non-revoluble; peristome single (exostomial), double, or absent, teeth attached at mouth or more often inserted below mouth, straight or sigmoid, not or weakly appendiculate, red‑brown, papillose‑striolate to striate on the front surface, endostome segments well-developed, rudimentary or absent, fused at base into a basal membrane, papillose. Spores spherical to reniform, insulate-baculate, verrucate-bullate, reticulate or nearly smooth. Calyptrae cucullate‑rostrate, inflated at base, naked, smooth.


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