3. Funaria Hedw. 葫芦藓属 hu-lu xian shu
Sp. Musc. Frond. 172. 1801.
Plants annual or biannual, small to medium-sized, terrestrial, green to yellowish green, in gregarious or dense tufts. Stems short, slender, often simple or sparsely branched at base. Leaves usually small, sparse below, larger and clustered, budlike at stem tips, ovate, lingulate, oblong-ovate to broadly obovate or ovate-lanceolate, concave, acute to acuminate at apex; margins plane, entire or denticulate above, sometimes marginal cells differentiated, forming a distinct border; costa percurrent or shortly excurrent; leaf cells large, lax, thin-walled, oblong-hexagonal above, rectangular below; alar cells not differentiated. Autoicous. Perigonia budlike, terminal; perichaetia located on short lateral branches just below perigonia, the short branches becoming main branches after perigonia dissolve. Setae elongate, slender; capsules long-exserted, suberect to pendulose, broadly pyriform, usually very asymmetric, curved, sulcate or plicate when dry, necks often distinctly developed; opercula nearly flat to low convex with a very short apiculus, rarely conic, usually not papillose; annuli usually inflated, revoluble, sometimes absent; peristome double; exostome teeth narrowly lanceolate, yellowish red or reddish brown, papillose-striate at base, often strongly trabeculate; endostome segments shorter than or nearly as long as the teeth, yellowish, papillose; basal membrane present or lacking; cilia none. Calyptrae inflated-cucullate, long-rostrate, smooth. Spores spherical, yellowish brown, densely papillose.