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Published In: Species Muscorum Frondosorum 172. 1801. (Sp. Musc. Frond.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 2/17/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project data     (Last Modified On 2/17/2011)

The generic name Funaria comes from the Latin funarius, of a rope or cord, given in reference to the setae of F. hygrometrica Hedw. which are strongly twisted when dry. This treatment of Funaria follows that of Fife (1982) in which the genus is defined by sulcate capsules with alternating bands of differentially thickened exothecial cells, a compound, revoluble annulus, a double peristome, and sigmoid exostome teeth fused at their apices with a lattice disc. As treated here it is a genus of about 20–30 species, distributed cosmopolitanly, from the high arctic to the tropics. It has often been used in a much broader sense (e.g., Brotherus, 1924), encompassing all or part of Entosthodon. Other important generic characters are its rostrate-inflated calyptra and small, uniformly verrucate spores.


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Funaria Hedw., Sp. Musc. Frond. 172. 1801.

Strephedium P. Beauv., Mag. Encycl. 5: 320. 1804, nom. inval. prov

Plants bright‑ to yellow‑green, small to medium‑sized, but robust for the family, usually gregarious in lax to dense tufts. Stems reddish brown, erect, simple except for the single basal branching of the perichaetial "branch" from the original perigonial stem, evenly foliate or leaves clustered toward stem apices, sclerodermis and central strand well-developed. Leaves erect‑spreading, usually contorted when dry, usually erect, imbricate and concave when moist, oblong‑ovate to obovate, obtuse, acute or acuminate, concave or concave‑keeled, not decurrent; margins entire or serrulate above, plane to narrowly incurved above, plane below; costa subpercurrent to percurrent, rarely excurrent, with a single large (dorsal) stereid band; upper cells oblong‑hexagonal to subquadrate or short‑rectangular, thin‑ to firm‑ walled, smooth, sometimes becoming longer and narrower at the margins and forming an indistinct border, toward the insertion becoming long‑rectangular, alar cells not or weakly differentiated. Autoicous or rarely polygamous. Setae orange to red‑brown, straight to cygneous, rarely geniculate, often twisted, not to strongly hygroscopic, smooth. Capsules reddish brown, pyriform to ovoid to cylindric, erect to inclined to pendent, curved, strongly asymmetric to symmetric, weakly to strongly sulcate when dry; the mouth from about 1/4 to equal the diameter of the capsule, oblique, parallel or perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the urn; the neck 1/4–1/2 the length of the capsule; exothecial cells with vertical bands of thin‑ to firm‑walled cells alternating with bands of thick‑walled cells, becoming oblate at the mouth; stomata phaneroporous; opercula low‑conic to plano‑convex, with a thickened dark‑red margin of a single row of rectangular cells, otherwise cells thin‑walled, spirally arranged; annuli compound, of small, quadrate, firm‑walled, reddish basal cells and a single row of large, ellipsoidal, very thick-walled, vesiculose, yellow cells, readily revoluble; peristome double, teeth attached at mouth, slightly to distinctly sigmoid, appendiculate throughout or only above with the projections and apices of teeth coalescing with a lattice disk, red‑brown, finely papillose throughout, the papillae often in vertical rows, endostome segments from 1/4 to almost as long as the teeth, free or adherent to the teeth, papillose on the inner surface, horizontally barred at extreme apex, almost smooth on the outer surface. Spores spherical to subreniform, uniformly verrucate. Calyptrae cucullate‑rostrate, inflated at base, naked, smooth.


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