3. Garovaglia Endl. 绳藓属 sheng xian shu
Gen. Pl. 57. 1836. Pilotrichum sect. Garovaglia (Endl.) Müll. Hal., J. Mus. Godeffroy 3(6): 75. 1874.
Endotrichella Müll. Hal., Linnaea 37: 156. 1872.
Plants robust, often rigid, yellowish green, glossy, in loose tufts. Primary stems slender, elongate, prostrate, with brownish rhizoids; secondary stems erect or ascending, densely foliate above, not at all complanate, sometimes naked at the base, simple or loosely and irregularly branched, obtuse at the tips. Stem and branch leaves similar, appressed or squarrose when dry, erect-spreading when moist, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, often concave, plicate; shortly acuminate or abruptly narrowed forming a long, slender apex; margins plane, often serrate above; costae double, short, weak or absent; leaf cells elongate-rhomboidal to linear, thick-walled, porose, often laxly arranged near the base; alar cells usually differentiated. Autoicous. Inner perichaetial leaves broadly ovate, sheathing at the base, abruptly and short- to long-acuminate at the apex. Setae very short; capsules immersed, emergent or shortly exserted, ovoid or oblong-ovoid, brown, smooth; opercula low-conic, shortly rostrate; peristome double; exostome teeth pale yellow or reddish brown, lanceolate, incurved, papillose, perforate along the median line, trabeculate on the inner surface; endostome segments linear-lanceolate, as long as the teeth, finely papillose; basal membrane very low or none. Calyptrae mitrate or cucullate, often lobed at the base, smooth. Spores irregularly spherical, papillose.