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Published In: Species Muscorum Frondosorum 75. 1801. (Sp. Musc. Frond.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library
 

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general taxon notes:
Hedwig (1801) enumerated five species under the genus Grimmia: G. apocarpa Hedw. [= Schistidium apocarpum (Hedw.) Bruch & Schimp.], G. alpicola Hedw. (= S. agassizii Sull. & Lesq.), G. plagiopodia Hedw., G. recurvata Hedw. [= Seligeria recurvata (Hedw.) Bruch & Schimp.], and G. cribrosa Hedw. [= Coscinodon cribrosus (Hedw.) Spruce]. The original concept of Grimmia was of a genus having a simple peristome, composed of 16 lanceolate teeth with perforations above. Bruch and Schimper (1845) established the modern generic concepts of Grimmia and its closely related sister genus, Schistidium. The distinguishing features of the genus Grimmia can be generalized as follows: 1) opercula falling separated from the columella; 2) calyptrae small, covering the opercula and only a part of the urn, mitrate or cucullate, smooth; 3) annuli present in most species; 4) basal leaf cells mostly with straight to sometimes sinuose walls; and 5) setae twisted to the left when dry, mostly longer than the urns.
 
Mitten (1859) reported three species of Grimmia from Xizang (Tibet): G. anodon Bruch & Schimp., G. tergestina Bruch & Schimp., and G. commutata Hüb. (nom. illeg.). Bescherelle (1892) reported G. ovata Web. & Mohr. from Yunnan province in southwestern China. Müller (1896, 1897, 1898) described nine new species of Grimmia from China based on collections made by J. Giraldi in Shaanxi province as well as by Przewalski and Potanin in Gansu province. V. F. Brotherus (1924a) studied the specimens collected by Handel-Mazzetti in southwestern China and described two new species: G. handelii Broth. and G. micropyxis Broth. Later, Brotherus (1929) reported seven additional species and one variety of Grimmia based on the collections of Handel-Mazzetti. Dixon (1928, 1933) described a new species, Grimmia elatior, and a new variety, G. elatior var. squarrifolia, for the Chinese moss flora. C.-Y. Yang (1936) reported that G. apiculata f. elata Dix. and G. apocarpa var. asperifolia Dix. from northern China, both represented nomen nuda based on the determination by Dixon. Grimmia ovalis (Hedw.) Lindb. was reported from northeastern China by Noguchi (1954).
 
P.-C. Chen et al. (1963) reported 23 species of Grimmia (sensu lato) from China. C. C. Chuang (1973) later reported Grimmia decalvata Card. (= G. elongata Kaulf.) from Taiwan. Several species and varieties were added to the Chinese flora by C. Gao (1977) and M.-X. Zhang (1978). Among them, seven species and one variety were reported new to China and G. kirienensis C. Gao was described new to science. Four additional new species of Grimmia and one species of Schistidium were described from Xizang by J.-X. Luo and P.-C. Wu (1980) and C. Gao et al. (1981), respectively. T. Cao and C. Gao in X.-J. Li (ed. 1985) enumerated 19 species and two varieties of Grimmia from Xizang, including five species and two varieties new to the country. T. Cao and Vitt (1986) and T. Cao in X.-J. Li (ed. 2000) both accepted 22 species (reduced from previously reported 49 taxa) for the entire Chinese moss flora. In this treatment, 23 species are recognized. Redfearn et al. (1996) listed Grimmia hartmanii Schimp. from Shaanxi province based on a student thesis about a local flora. We have not been able to see any specimens of this species.
 
Since infrageneric classification is not dealt with in this treatment, the classification of Chinese Grimmia into subgenera is not discussed. Deguchi (1978) presented an excellent review of the history and different infrageneric classifications proposed by various authors for Grimmia. Most recently, Nyholm (1998) presented a new infrageneric classification for the Fennoscandian species. Based on our previous studies on the distribution and phylogenetic interpretation of character states, Chinese species of Grimmia can be grouped into four subgenera.
 
Grimmia subgen. Grimmia (Hedw.) Schimp.: G. anodon Bruch & Schimp.
Grimmia subgen. Guembelia (Hampe) Schimp.: G. atrata Mielich. ex Hornsch., G. donniana Sm., G. elongata Kaulf., G. funalis (Schwaegr.) Bruch & Schimp., G. handelii Broth., G. longirostris Hook., G. montana Bruch & Schimp., G. pilifera P. de Beauv., and G. reflexidens C. Müll.
Grimmia subgen. Litoneuron Hag.: G. laevigata (Brid.) Brid., G. mammosa C. Gao & T. Cao, G. obtusifolia C. Gao & T. Cao, G. ovalis (Hedw.) Lindb., G. poecilostoma Card. & Sebille, G. tergestina Tomm. ex B.S.G., and G. unicolor Hook. ex Grev.
Grimmia subgen. Rhabdogrimmia Limpr.: G. decipiens (Schultz) Lindb., G. elatior Bruch ex Bals. & De Not., G. fuscolutea Hook., G. incurva Schwaegr., G. macrotheca Mitt., and G. pulvinata (Hedw.) Sm.
 
TAXA EXCLUDED FROM CHINA
 
The following taxa have been reported from China on the basis of misidentified material.
 
1. Grimmia alpestris (Web. & Mohr) Schleich., Cat. Pl. Helv. ed. 2, 29. 1808.
 
Grimmia alpestris is characterized by its small plants and nearly uniform quadrate basal marginal leaf cells with transverse walls distinctly thicker than longitudinal walls. The specimens from Xizang identified as G. alpestris (K.-Y. Lang 654, 1652, both in IFSBH) are misidentified and belong to G. montana.
 
 
2. Grimmia alpestris (Web. & Mohr) Schleich. var. holzingeri (Card. & Thér.) Jones in Grout, Moss Fl. N. Amer. 2: 31. pl. 9. 1933.
 
This variety is characterized by distinctly muticous leaves. The specimen from Xizang (K.-Y. Lang 321, IFSBH) identified as this variety is Grimmia longirostris.
 
 
3. Grimmia hartmanii Schimp., Syn. Musc. Eur. 214. 1860.
 
Grimmia hartmanii is characterized by having robust plants, large, globose, multicellular, dark reddish gemmae that are commonly produced in conspicuous clusters at the tips of shortly blunt leaves at the ends of stems and branches. The species was reported from Shaanxi province by M.-X. Zhang (1978). We have verified two specimens identified as G. hartmanii (M.-X. Zhang 391, 511, both in IFSBH) from Shaanxi to be Schistidium strictum. This species does not occur in China.
 
 
4. Grimmia maritima Turn., Trans. Dublin Soc. 3: 158. pl. 1. 1803.
 
C. Gao (1977) and C. Gao and G.-C. Zhang (1983) reported G. maritima from northeastern China. This species is often treated as Schistidium maritimum (Turn.) Bruch & Schimp in B.S.G. and is characterized by having rigid, muticous leaves with a strong, reddish, and percurrent costa. The costa in cross section is biconvex, with a chain of median cells between stereid bands. The capsules are deeply immersed in large perichaetial leaves. The spores are large, 20–23 µm in diameter. This is a halophytic species often distributed on coastal rocks within meters of saltwater. Because of its maritime habitat, it is doubtful that this species occurs in Mt. Qian, Liaonign province, and Lao-ye-ling, Jilin province, as reported. No specimens we have verified belong to this species. It is possible that this species may be found along the coastal areas of China.
 
 
5. Grimmia torquata Drumm., Musci Scotoci Vol. 2, n° 28. 1825.
 
Grimmia torquata was reported from Xizang by X.-J. Li (ed. 1985). This species is distinguished by the leaves strongly twisted around stems in a conspicuous helix. It has gemmae often present on the costa in the lower part of the leaves. The basal marginal leaf cells are linear with rather thick and sinuose walls. The specimens from Xizang identified as G. torquata (K.-Y. Lang 1217, 1218a, 1219a, 1220a, 1223, 1224a all in IFSBH, PE; M. Zang 1996, HKAS, IFSBH) are G. fuscolutea. No specimens from China have been found to be Grimmia torquata.
 

 

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2. Grimmia Hedw.  紫萼藓属   zi-e xian shu
Sp. Musc. Frond. 75. 1801. Bryum sect. Grimmia (Hedw.) Relhan, Fl. Cantab. (ed. 2), 2: 424. 1802.
Gasterogrimmia (Schimp.) Buyss., Feuille Jeunes Naturalistes 13: 63. 1883.
 
Plants small to robust, green to yellowish green above, dark green to brownish or blackish below, in dense tufts or cushions or sometimes in loose tufts. Stems erect, moderately branched from innovations, with or without central strand in cross section. Leaves imbricate, erect or somewhat contorted when dry, erect-spreading to wide-spreading when moist, ovate, ovate-lanceolate to oblong-ovate or linear-lanceolate, keeled or concave, muticous or ending in a hyaline hair-point; leaf margins recurved, plane or slightly incurved, mostly bistratose above; costa strong, single, percurrent, subpercurrent or ending below the leaf apex, terete or flattened, smooth on abaxial surface, consisting of nearly homogeneous cells to small median or abaxial cells in transverse section; upper leaf cells small, irregularly quadrate to short-rectangular, unistratose or bistratose to 3–4-stratose, obscure, with thick, more or less sinuose walls, smooth or papillose; basal leaf cells near margins subquadrate, quadrate to rectangular, thin-walled or with transverse walls thicker than longitudinal ones; juxtacostal cells elongate, with thin or thick, straight or sinuose walls. Autoicous or dioicous. Perichaetial leaves similar to vegetative ones, but larger, loosely areolate or differentiated with membranous and pallid margins. Setae straight or arcuate, long or shorter than the urn, erect or twisted to left when dry; capsules erect or horizontal to pendent, immersed to long-exserted, obovate, oblong-ovate, subglobose or cylindric, smooth to ribbed; annuli well developed, consisting of quadrate to short-rectangular or rectangular cells with thick walls, sometimes wanting; exothecial cells mostly elongate-hexagonal, thin-walled; stomata at base of the urn; opercula conic or convex, without or with short or long, erect to somewhat oblique beak; columella persistent, not falling with opercula; peristome teeth 16, haplolepideous, mostly well developed, reddish brown to yellowish brown, erect, lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, entire or imperfectly perforate and split above, papillose on both the outer and inner surface, outer plates thicker than inner ones, sometimes peristome reduced or absent. Calyptrae small, covering only upper portion of the urn, mitrate or cucullate, smooth. Spores small, 7–16 µm in diameter, green to yellowish green, smooth to more or less granulose or papillose.
 
 

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1. Setae shorter than urns; capsules immersed in perichaetial leaves...........2
1. Setae longer than urns; capsules emergent or exserted above perichaetial leaves............................................. 5
2. Plants less than 2.0 cm high; setae curved when moist; capsules asymmetric, ventricose at base............... 3
2. Plants more than 2.0 cm high; setae straight when moist; capsules symmetric, not ventricose at base....... 4
3. Peristome absent; capsules subglobose; leaves keeled........1. G. anodon
3. Peristome present; capsules ovoid; leaves concave............................................................. 19. G. poecilostoma
4. Leaves lanceolate, keeled above; margins recurved; basal juxtacostal cells with sinuose, thick walls; perichaetial leaves similar to upper vegetative leaves................................................................. 18. G. pilifera
4. Leaves oblong-ovate, concave; margins plane or incurved; basal juxtacostal cells with straight, thin walls; perichaetial leaves with membranous and pallid margins....................................................... 22. G. tergestina
5. Capsules emergent, more or less concealed in hair-point of perichaetial leaves........................... 7. G. funalis
5. Capsules exserted above perichaetial leaves.......................6
6. Setae straight when moist; capsules erect, smooth...................7
6. Setae curved when moist; capsules horizontal to pendent, ribbed......18
7. Leaves muticous..........................................................................8
7. Leaves with hyaline hair-points.........................................11
8. Leaves keeled above, with more or less acute apices; margins recurved on one side.................................... 9
8. Leaves concave, with rounded-obtuse apices; margins plane............10
9. Leaves obtusely keeled, oblong-lanceolate to lingulate-lanceolate, upper leaf cells bistratose; flagelliform branches absent.....................2. G. atrata
9. Leaves sharply keeled, lanceolate from a narrowly ovate base; upper leaf cells unistratose except margins; flagelliform branches present.............9. G. handelii
10. Leaves ovate to broadly ovate; basal cells near margins subquadrate; plants only up to 1 cm high ..........16. G. obtusifolia
10. Leaves oblong-lanceolate; basal cells near margins rectangular; plants up to 3 cm high ......... 23. G. unicolor
11. Leaves concave; costa flattened...............................................12
11. Leaves keeled; costa terete........................................................14
12. Upper and median leaf cells bulging, obviously unituberculate.............14. G. mammosa
12. Upper and median leaf cells flat, smooth or nearly so..................13
13. Plants up to 1.5 cm high; leaves oblong-ovate to oblong-lanceolate, with a short upper part................ 11. G. laevigata
13. Plants robust, up to 3.0 cm high; leaves lanceolate from ovate base, with a long upper part...... 17. G. ovalis
14. Margins plane on both sides below........................ 15
14. Margins recurved on one side below................................. 16
15. Basal cells near margins elongate-rectangular, with thin walls; calyptrae mitriform; annuli well developed; autoicous.............................4. G. donniana
15. Basal cells near margins quadrate to short-rectangular, with distinctly thick transverse walls; calyptrae cucullate; annuli wanting; dioicous............................................................................15. G. montana
16. Plants often reddish brown; leaves very shortly hair-pointed or muticous; dioicous........... 6. G. elongata
16. Plants yellowish green to green or dark green; leaves long hair-pointed; autoicous................................. 17
17. Basal juxtacostal cells with straight walls; basal cells near margins with much thickened, transverse walls; plants small, up to 1 cm high; annuli wanting; calyptrae cucullate...................................... 21.G. reflexidens
17. Basal juxtacostal cells with sinuose walls; basal cells near margins with slightly thickened transverse walls; plants large, up to 3 cm high; annuli well developed; calyptrae mitriform ....................... 12. G. longirostris
18. Upper cells 2–3(–4)-stratose, distinctly papillose; costa convex on abaxial side of leaf........ 5. G. elatior
18. Upper cells unistratose except margins, smooth; costa flat on abaxial side of leaf.................................. 19
19. Hyaline hair-points long, up to 1/2 to the full length of leaf............... 20
19. Hyaline hair-points short, less than 1/4 the length of leaf................. 21
20. Leaves lanceolate with coarsely denticulate, decurrent hair-points; basal juxtacostal cells with sinuose walls.......................................3. G. decipiens
20. Leaves oblong-lanceolate or elliptic with slender, nearly smooth, non-decurrent hair-points; basal juxtacostal cells with straight walls....................................................................................... 20. G. pulvinata
21. Leaves linear-lanceolate with elongate, subulate upper part, length:width ratio 5–6:1............ 10. G. incurva
21. Leaves lanceolate, length:width ratio 3–4:1....................................22
22. Setae very short, only up to 2 mm long; capsules ovoid-globose to oblong-ovoid; peristome teeth lanceolate, divided above................8. G. fuscolutea
22. Setae up to 5–7 mm long; capsules subcylindrical to cylindrical; peristome teeth linear-lanceolate, undivided above........................13. G. macrotheca
 
 
Key to Grimmia (utilizing gametophytic characters)
 
1. Leaves muticous, without hyaline hair-points............................. 2
1. Leaves with hyaline hair-points (at least the upper stem leaves)..............5
2. Leaves keeled above, with more or less acute apices; margins recurved on one side.................................... 3
2. Leaves concave, with rounded-obtuse apices; margins plane.............. 4
3. Leaves slightly keeled, lingulate-lanceolate; upper cells bistratose; flagelliform branches absent .................2. G. atrata
3. Leaves strongly keeled, lanceolate from a narrowly ovate base; upper cells unistratose except margins; flagelliform branches present.........9. G. handelii
4. Leaves ovate to broadly ovate; basal cells near margins subquadrate; plants only up to 1 cm high  ...........................................16. G. obtusifolia
4. Leaves oblong-lanceolate; basal cells near margins rectangular; plants up to 3 cm high...... 23. G. unicolor
5. Upper leaf cells distinctly papillose....................................6
5. Upper leaf cells smooth or nearly so.......................................... 7
6. Leaves concave; costa broad, flattened; margins plane; plants small, up to 1.5 cm; upper cells unituberculate...................................14. G. mammosa
6. Leaves keeled; costa terete and convex on dorsal side of leaf; margins revolute on one side; plants robust, up to 5–6 cm high; upper cells irregularly papillose...................................................................... 5. G. elatior
7. Leaves concave....................................................8
7. Leaves keeled...............................................................12
8. Basal marginal leaf cells elongate-rectangular with thin walls..............9
8. Basal marginal leaf cells, oblate, quadrate to short-rectangular, with thicker transverse walls.................. 10
9. Plants small, leaves less than 2.0 mm long; leaf hair-points denticulate; autoicous..................... 1. G. anodon
9. Plants robust, leaves more than 2.4 mm, long; leaf hair-points nearly smooth; dioicous...... 22. G. tergestina
10. Basal marginal leaf cells oblate; plants up to 1.5 cm high.................................................... 11. G. laevigata
10. Basal marginal leaf cells quadrate to short-rectangular; plants up to 3.0 cm high..................................... 11
11. Basal juxtacostal leaf cells long-rectangular (1–8:1), with sinuose walls................................... 17. G. ovalis
11. Basal juxtacostal leaf cells short-rectangular (1–4:1), with straight walls...................... 19. G. poecilostoma
12. Leaf margins plane on both sides..............................................13
12. Leaf margins recurved on one or both sides................................14
13. Basal leaf cells near margins elongate-rectangular, with rather thin walls; autoicous............ 4. G. donniana
13. Basal leaf cells near margins quadrate to short-rectangular, with thick transverse walls; dioicous ..............................................15. G. montana
14. Hyaline hair-points long, up to 1/2 the laminal length...................15
14. Hyaline hair-points short, less than 1/4 the laminal length.................17
15. Leaves usually spirally twisted when dry; plants often with thread-like stems............................. 7. G. funalis
15. Leaves not spirally curved when dry; plants lacking thread-like stems........................................................... 16
16. Leaves lanceolate with coarsely denticulate, decurrent hyaline hair-points; basal juxtacostal cells sinuose-walled................................3. G. decipiens
16. Leaves oblong-lanceolate or elliptical, with narrow, faintly toothed, non-decurrent hyaline hair-points; basal juxtacostal cells straight-walled................................................................................... 20. G. pulvinata
17. Leaves linear-lanceolate with an elongate, subulate upper part, length:width ratio ca. 5–6:1........... 10. G. incurva
17. Leaves lanceolate with a short upper part, length:width ratio 3–4:1............................................................... 18
18. Basal juxtacostal cells smooth or nearly so; upper cells unistratose except at margin............................. 19
18. Basal juxtacostal cells sinuose; upper cells bistratose.............22
19. Basal cells near margins with transverse walls much thicker than longitudinal ones......... 21. G. reflexidens
19. Basal cells near margins with thin walls................................ 20
20. Plants often reddish brown; leaves with very short hair-points or muticous; dioicous......... 6. G. elongata
20. Plants dark green to dark brown; leaves with hair-points; autoicous........21
21. Upper and median cells slightly sinuose; perigonia not located below perichaetia........... 13. G. macrotheca
21. Upper and median cells strongly sinuose; perigonia located just below perichaetia............. 8. G. fuscolutea
22. Stems with a well developed central strand; leaves lanceolate, without forming a shoulder; autoicous............................................12. G. longirostris
22. Stems without a well developed central strand; leaves from ovate base suddenly narrowed toward the apex, forming a shoulder; dioicous........................................................................................... 18. G. pilifera
 
 

 

 
 
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