10. Meteorium (Brid.) Dozy & Molk. 蔓藓属 man xian shu
Musci Frond. Ined. Archip. Ind. 157. 1848. Pilotrichum subgen. Meteorium Brid., Bryol. Univ. 2: 264. 1827.
Plants small to rather robust, soft or stout, dark green or brownish green when old, sometimes blackish, glossy or not glossy, in loose and compact mats. Primary stems creeping, sometimes stoloniferous; secondary stems pendulous or prostrate, flexuose, loosely or densely branched or irregularly pinnately branched; branches often densely foliate, turgid, obtuse at the apex; in stem cross section, epidermis consisting of several layers of yellowish brown, thick-walled cells, medullary cells large, hyaline; a central strand weakly differentiated, with several small cells. Leaves of secondary stems and branches similar, imbricate when dry, broadly ovate, oblong-ovate, or triangularly ovate, often concave, irregularly plicate, usually cucullate, abruptly narrowed to a short, sometimes hairy acumen at the apex, often undulate, auriculate at the base; margins often incurved, entire, crenulate or serrulate above; costae single, reaching 1/2–2/3 the leaf length, rarely forked; leaf cells oval, rhomboidal, linear-rhomboidal to linear, usually distinctly unipapillose, thick-walled, porose; basal juxtacostal cells rectangular, strongly thick-walled, porose, often smooth; alar cells not clearly defined, cells at the auricles oblong to linear; axillary hairs ca. 5 cells long, 1–2 basal cells short, brown, upper cells hyaline. Dioicous. Perichaetia on branches; inner perichaetial leaves ovate-lanceolate, with a hairy apex; paraphyses numerous. Setae ca. 2 mm long, roughened; capsules erect, ovoid to oblong-ovoid; opercula conic, obliquely rostrate; annuli not differentiated; peristome double; exostome teeth lanceolate, in various forms, not hyaline, densely and finely papillose, lamellae high; endostome segments linear, shorter or as long as the teeth, densely papillose, keeled, perforate; basal membrane low; cilia absent. Calyptrae cucullate, often hairy. Spores spherical, papillose.