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Published In: Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 10: 176. 1868. (J. Linn. Soc., Bot.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library
 

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 10/8/2009)
Acceptance : Accepted
Notes     (Last Modified On 4/13/2014)
Notes:
About 30 species recorded for the Neotropics, probably 15 or fewer. Pelekium is distinguished by small, 1-3 pinnately branched plants, simple or weakly branched paraphyllia of few cells, bifid or notched secondary branch leaf apex, both (rarely one) surfaces of leaf papillose, sexual condition autoicous, and a frequently papillose seta. Pelekium is typical of tropical lowland forest whereas Thuidium is rare or absent in these habitats but becomes relatively common in the highlands where Pelekium is less common, but notably the species with erect capsules. Keys and discussions based on Buck (1998) and Touw (2001).
 
Unas 30 especies registradas en el Neotrópico, probablemente 15 o menos. Pelekium se distingue por las plantas pequeñas, con ramas 1-3 pinnadas, parafilos con pocas células simples o débilmente ramificados, ápices de las hojas de las ramas secundarias bífidas o con una escotadura, ambas superficies de hoja papilosas (rara vez sólo una), condición sexual autoica, y seta frecuentemente papilosa. Pelekium es un género típico de los bosques de tierras bajas tropicales mientras que Thuidium es raro o ausente en estos hábitats pero se torna relativamente común en tierras altas donde Pelekium es poco común, pero las especies con cápsulas erectas son llamativas.
 
The following names, referable to Pelekium (previously Thuidium and Cyrto-hypnum), are listed by Touw as insufficiently known:
 
Thuidium arzobispoae (Müll. Hal.) A. Jaeger, Ber. Thätigk. St. Gallischen Naturwiss. Ges. 1876-77: 253. 1878. Hypnum arzobispoae Müll. Hal., Flora 58: 553. 1875. Cyrto-hypnum arzobispoae (Müll. Hal.) S.P. Churchill & E. Linares C., Bibliot. José Jerónimo Triana 12: 835. 1995. Syntypes: Colombia. [Cundinamarca] Bogotá, la Penna et Rio Arzobispo, 2700-2900 m, May & Nov 1861, Lindig s.n. (BM?).
 
Thuidium cylindraceum Mitt.,J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 12: 574. 1869.Cyrto-hypnum cylindraceum (Mitt.) S. P. Churchill, AAU Rep. 35: 195. 1994. Syntypes: Ecuador. Andes Quitenses, ad pagum Lucmas vallis Alausi (6000 ped.), Spruce 1446; in sylva Llalla et in monte Tunguragua (9000 ped.), Spruce 1447.
 
Thuidium espinosae Herzog, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 61B: 589. f. 16g. 1942.Cyrto-hypnum espinosae (Herzog) S.P. Churchill, AAU Rep. 35: 195. 1994. Type: Ecuador. Ohne nähere Fundortsangabe, Espinosa 35 ex p.
 
Thuidium frontinoae (Müll. Hal.) A. Jaeger, Ber. Thätigk. St. Gallischen Naturwiss. Ges. 1876-77: 253. 1878. Hypnum frontinoae Müll. Hal., Flora 58: 552. 1875. Cyrto-hypnum frontinoae (Müll. Hal.) S.P. Churchill & E. Linares C., Bibliot. José Jerónimo Triana 12: 835. 1995. Type: Colombia. Antioquia, Cerro de Frontino, 8000 ped., 1874, Wallis s.n.
 
Thuidium intermedium Mitt.,J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 12: 573. 1869.Cyrto-hypnum intermedium (Mitt.) S. P. Churchill, AAU Rep. 35: 195. 1994. Syntypes: Andes Quitenses, Quito et Chimborazo, Jameson; in montibus Pichincha (10,000 ped.), Spruce 1454; et Chimborazo (10,000 ped.), etiam in valle Leito (8000 ped.), Spruce 1455; in montibus Guayrapata et Lamas, Spruce 1452; in monte Tunguragua (7000 ped.), setis longioribus, Spruce 1453; etiam Humboldt in Herb. Hooker, n. 9 et 10.
 
Thuidium latopulvinatum Herzog, Biblioth. Bot. 87: 144. 8 f. 25-32. 1916. Syntypes: Bolivia. Auf Baumwurzeln im Bergwald des Meson bei Samaipata in großen, tiefen Rasen, ca. 2100 m, Herzog 4124; in der Quebrada de Pocona, ca. 2800 m, Herzog 5150.
 
Thuidium ochraceum Herzog, Biblioth. Bot. 87: 143. 8 f. 17-24. 1916. Type: Bolivia. Auf faulem Holz zwischen Sphagnum im Buschfilz an der Waldgrenze über Tablas, ca. 3400 m, Herzog 2924.
 
Thuidium yungarum Herzog, Biblioth. Bot. 87: 143. 8 f. 10-16. 1916. Syntypes: Bolivia. Im feuchten Bergwald bei Incacorral, ca. 2200 m, Herzog 4993, Herzog 5094.

 

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Plants small, forming loose to ± dense mats, light to dark green. Stems and branches loosely creeping to subascending, 1-3 pinnately branched; central strand present; paraphylla few and scattered along stems, often absent on branches, unbranched or little-branched, weakly papillose. Leaves of stems and branches little differentiated in size and shape, ovate to cordate- or triangular-short to long acuminate, apex erect or subsquarrose, usually bifid or notched; margins plane to recurved below, entire or crenulate-dentate by projecting papillae; costae single, stem leaf costa mostly ending below or extending into acumen; laminal cells isodiametric, pluripapillose, papillae projecting on both sides of lamina, thick-walled. Autoicous. Perichaetia lateral; leaves elongate, ovate-triangular to -lanceolate, apex short to more commonly long acuminate; margins entire to long ciliate. Setae elongate, papillose, rarely smooth. Capsules inclined, pendent or erect to suberect, urn short to somewhat long ovoid or ovoid-cylindrical, slightly curved or not; annuli in 2-3 rows; opercula conic to conic short to long rostrate, oblique; peristome double, exostome teeth 16, cross-striate, papillose distally; endostome basal membrane high, segments 16, keeled, cilia1-3(4). Calyptrae cucullate, smooth and naked. Spores spherical, appearing smooth to lightly papillose.

 

Plantas pequeñas, formando matas laxas hasta ± densas, verde claras hasta oscuras. Tallos y ramas laxamente reptantes a subascendentes, ramas 1- 3 pinnadas; cordón central presente; pocos paráfilos, esparcidos a lo largo de los tallos, a menudo ausentes en las ramas, sin ramificar o poco ramificados, débilmente papilosos. Hojas de los tallos y ramas poco diferenciadas en tamaño y forma, ovadas hasta -cordadas o corto-triangulares hasta largo-acuminadas, ápices erectos o subescuarrosos, generalmente bífidos o con una escotadura; márgenes planos a recurvados en la porción inferior, enteros o crenulado-dentados por las proyecciones de las papilas; costa simple, costa de las hojas del tallo generalmente terminando debajo o extendiéndose hasta el acumen; células de la lámina isodiamétricas, pluripapilosas, rara vez unipapilosas, papilas proyectándose en ambos lados de la lámina, con paredes gruesas. Autoicas. Periquecios laterales; hojas alargadas, ovado-triangulares hasta -lanceoladas, ápices cortos a más comúnmente largo-acuminados; márgenes enteros hasta largo-ciliados. Setas alargadas, papilosas, raras veces lisas. Cápsulas inclinadas, pendientes o erectas hasta suberectas, urna corta hasta algo largo-ovoide u ovoide-cilíndrica, escasamente curvadas o no; anillo en 2-3 filas; opérculo cónico, cónico-corto hasta largo-rostrado, oblicuo; peristoma doble, exostoma con 16 dientes, con estrías cruzadas, distalmente papilosos; membrana basal del endostoma alta, con 16 segmentos, carinados, -3(4) cilios. Caliptra cuculada, lisa y desnuda. Esporas esféricas, de apariencia lisa hasta finamente papilosa.

 

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1. Leaf cells unipapillose … P. muricatulum

1. Leaf cells pluripapillose … 2

2. Capsules erect to suberect; setae smooth or slightly papillose (roughened) below urn … P. leptocladum

2. Capsules horizontal to pendent; setae papilllose or smooth (P. involvens) … 3.

3. Plants 1-pinnate; branch leaves incurved when dry; oblong-lanceolate, nearly the same size as stem leaves; paraphyllia few on stem … P. involvens

3. Plants 2-3-pinnate; branch leaves not or slightly incurved when dry; ovate, distinctly smaller than the stem leaves; paraphyllia usually numerous on stem … 4.

4. Paraphyllia 2-3-celled, cells ca. 2 times longer than wide; plants usually weakly 2-pinnate; setae smooth throughout; perichaetial leaves lacking cilia along margin … P. involvens

4. Paraphyllia 2-8-celled, cells mostly quadrate; plants regularly 2(3)-pinnate; setae roughened (papillose) throughout; perichaetial leaves ciliate or lacking cilia along margins … 5.

5. Paraphyllia almost all 3-5-celled; branch leaves laxly disposed and spreading, branches readily observable; perichaetial leaves not ciliate or cilia few, short and erect … P. scabrosulum

5. Paraphyllia 3-5- but some 6-8-celled; branch leaves appressed, branches not readily observable; perichaetial leaves ciliate, cilia long, flexuose … P. schistocalyx

 

 

 
 
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