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Publicado en: Bryologia Universa 2: 15–28, pl. 6, f. 5. 1827. (Bryol. Univ.) Name publication detail

Datos del Proyecto Nombre (Last Modified On 10/5/2009)
Aceptación : Accepted
Datos del Proyecto     (Last Modified On 10/8/2017)
Plant Category: Mosses
General Reference:

Notas     (Last Modified On 10/8/2017)

Philonotis is recognized, in part, by the habitat, usually in exposed to shaded seepy or permanently wet sites. The plants are generally small, stems lack a hyalodermis, subfloral innovations are present, leaves mostly 2 mm long or less, alar cells undifferentiated or weakly so, seta elongate, and capsules furrowed when dry, peristome well developed and usually persistent. A widespread genus of wet habitats with far fewer than the180 species ascribed to it. In the Neotropics numerous species described or reported; more than 40 species recorded for the tropical Andes; the actual number of species is probably on the order of 25. In the tropical Andes Philonotis is mostly found exposed on soil or rock usually associated with wet habitats such as river banks or seepy habitats in lowland to montane areas, and boggy sites at higher elevations. Philonotis is much in need of revision in the Neotropics. The treatment by Dismier (1910), although very much outdated, is still a useful reference; the keys are partially functional. The recent treatments for Mexico (Griffin 1994) and Central America (Allen 2002) include several of the Andean species. The present concept of Philonotis includes the genus Bartramidula.


Philonotis es un  género ampliamente distribuido con casi 180 especies. En el Neotrópico puede haber unas 30-40 especies luego de una revisión minuciosa. Aproximadamente 20 especie o menos se encuentran en los Andes tropicales. En los Andes tropicales Philonotis se encuentra principalmente en hábitats expuestos sobre suelo o rocas, en las tierras altas también sobre taludes de ríos, manantiales y pantanos; en tierras bajas generalmente está restringido a arroyos y taludes de ríos. Philonotis se reconoce por su pequeña estatura, hialodermis ausente en los tallos, presencia de ramas fasciculadas cortas, células de la lámina por lo general claramente papilosas, proyectándose en los extremos (rara vez en el centro del lumen), células alares indiferenciadas o débilmente diferenciadas, setas largas y cápsulas acanaladas en seco, peristoma bien desarrollado y generalmente persistente.


Status Unknown or Reports Questionable:


Philonotis asperrima Müll. Hal. ex E. Britton, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 23: 484. 1896. Bartramia asperrima (Müll. Hal. ex E. Britton) Müll. Hal., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. n. s. 4: 44. 1897. Type: Bolivia. Sorata, 1000 ft., Rusby 3140.


Philonotis boliviensis Herzog, Biblioth. Bot. 88: 17. 9. 1920. Type: Bolivia. An Erdhängen bei Incacorral, ca. 2200 m, Herzog 5102.


Philonotis clavicaulis Herzog, Biblioth. Bot. 88: 18. 1920. Type: Bolivia. In kleinen Rinnsalen der Hochregion von Altamachi, ca.4000 m, Herzog 3876.


Philonotis crassinervia Broth. & Paris, Rev. Bryol.33: 103. 1906. Type: Colombia. Cundinamarca. La Vega, avril 1906, Apollinaire. Also reported for Venezuela and Peru.


Philonotis eurydictyon Herzog, Biblioth. Bot. 88: 17. 1920. Type: Bolivia. An feuchten Felsen der Talschlucht von Tablas, ca. 1800 m, Herzog s.n. Also reported for Peru.


Philonotis fendleri (Müll. Hal.) D.G. Griffin & W.R. Buck,Bryologist 92: 376. 1989. Bartramia fendleri Müll. Hal., Linnaea 42: 463. 1879. Type: Venezuela. 1855, Fendler 67.


Philonotis filiformis (Hornsch.) Mitt., J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot., Suppl. 1: 59. 1859. Bartramia filiformis Hornsch., Fl. Bras. 1(2): 40. 1840. Type: Brazil. Martius.


Philonotis filiramea (Müll. Hal.) Paris, Index Bryol. Suppl. 266. 1900. Bartramia filiramea Müll. Hal., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. n. s. 4: 42. 1897. Type: Bolivia. Sin. loc. & leg. Possible type data: Cochabamba, prope Choquecamata, Germain.


Philonotis fragilicaulis R.S. Williams, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 42: 402. 25 f. 1-9. 1915. Type: Peru. Araranca, 4260 m. alt., August 1914, Rose & Rose 19513. Also recorded from Bolivia at 3400 m.


Philonotis gardneri (Müll. Hal.) A. Jaeger, Ber. Thätigk. St. Gallischen Naturwiss. Ges. 1873-74: 91. 1875. Bartramia gardneri Müll. Hal., Syn. Musc. Frond. 1: 477. 1848. Type: Brazil. Monte Corcovado, Gardner. Reported for Bolivia.


Philonotis huallagensis Broth., Hedwigia 45: 274. 1906. Type: Peru. Rio Huallaga, an Abhängen des Cerro de Escalero, 1100 m, Ule 2365.


Philonotis lignicola Dism.& Herzog, Biblioth. Bot.87: 97. 1916. Type: Bolivia. Auf faulem Holz im Bergwald von Florida de San Mateo, ca. 2000 m, Herzog 3637.


Philonotis macrodictya (Müll. Hal.) Kindb., Enum. Bryin. Exot., Suppl. 1. 93. 1889. Bartramia macrodictya Müll. Hal., Linnaea 42: 463. 1879. Type: Venezuela. Sin. loc., 1855, Fendler [77].


Philonotis nigroflava Müll. Hal., Hedwigia 36: 100. 1897. Type: Bolivia.


Philonotis operta R.S. Williams, Bull. New York Bot. Garden 6: 233. 1910. Type: Bolivia. Palamos near Mapiri, 1000 meters elevation, 13 Jun 1902, Williams 1909.


Philonotis osculatiana De Not., Mem. Reale Accad. Sci. Torino ser. 2, 18: 444. 5. 1859. Type: Ecuador. Río Napo, Osculati. Also reported for the department of Magdalena, Colombia.


Philonotis pellucidiretis (Müll. Hal.) Paris, Index Bryol. Suppl. 267. 1900. Bartramia pellucidiretis Müll. Hal., Bull. Herb. Boissier 6: 48. 1898. Reported for Bolivia: 3700-4200 m.


Philonotis pugionifolia E. Britton, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 23: 485. 1896. Bartramia pugionifolia (E. Britton) Müll. Hal., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. n. s. 4: 44. 1897. Type: Bolivia. Yungas, 4000-6000 ft., 1885, Rusby 3139. The original printed name, P. pagionifolia Müll. Hal. ex E. Britton, is an orthographic variant (nom. inval., orthogr. err.).


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Plants small to medium sized, forming short dense tufts, rarely solitary, pale to dark green or brownish-yellow. Stems erect to suberect, single or few branched, often with terminal short fasciculate branches; rhizoid usually conspicuous, sometimes densely tomentose. Leaves somewhat distant to crowded, ovate- to oblong-lanceolate or lanceolate, apex acuminate, acute to obtuse; margins plane above, often recurved below, denticulate, bluntly to sharply serrate; costae single, strong, often toothed on back, subpercurrent to long excurrent; upper and median cells oblong-linear to rhombic or short rectangular, usually papillose at upper or lower ends, rarely centered over the lumen, papillae often large, on one or both surfaces; basal cells somewhat to distinctly larger, rectangular and firm-walled, to oblong and± lax, smooth or papillose; alar region undifferentiated or occasional margins cells differentiated. Dioicous, infrequently autoicous. Setae elongate, smooth. Capsules suberect to inclined, urn subglobose, striate when dry; opercula conic; peristome double, rarely single or absent, exostome teeth 16; endostome membrane high, cilia present. Calyptrae cucullate, smooth and naked. Spores papillose.


Plantas pequeñas hasta medianas, formando manojos cortos, densos, rara vez solitarios, de color verde pálido hasta oscuro o pardo-amarillento. Tallos erectos hasta suberectos, simples o con pocas ramificaciones, a menudo con ramas terminales cortas y fasciculadas; rizoides generalmente conspicuos, algunas veces densamente tomentosos. Hojas algo separadas hasta agregadas, ovado- a oblongo-lanceoladas o lanceoladas, ápices acuminados, agudos hasta obtusos; márgenes planos hacia el ápice, a menudo recurvados hacia la base, denticulados, obtusos hasta claramente serrados; costa simple, fuerte, a menudo dentada en el envés, subpercurrente hasta largo-excurrente; células superiores y mediales oblongo-lineales hasta rómbicas o corto-rectangulares, generalmente papilosas en los extremos superiores o inferiores, rara vez en el centro del lumen, papilas a menudo grandes, en una o ambos superficies; células basales algo hasta conspicuamente mayores, rectangulares con paredes firmes, hasta oblongas y ± laxas, lisas o papilosas; región alar indiferenciada o células del borde ocasionalmente diferenciadas. Dioicas, rara vez autoicas. Setas largas y lisas. Cápsulas suberectas hasta inclinadas, urna subglobosa, estriada en seco; opérculo cónico; peristoma doble, rara vez simple o ausente, exostoma con 16 dientes; membrana del endostoma alta, cilios presentes. Caliptra cuculada, lisa y desnuda. Esporas papilosas.

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