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Published In: Flora 12((2) Erganzungsblatter): 19. 1829. (Flora) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 9/28/2009)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 10/8/2017)
Plant Category: Mosses
General Reference:

Notes     (Last Modified On 10/8/2017)

Ptychomitrium contains about 40 species (Cao et al., 2003) distributed primarily in the Southern Hemisphere; about eight species in the Neotropics. The is recognized by the leaves crispate and contorted when dry, with rather strongly or moderately differentiated base and limb, thick-walled quadrate or quadrate-rounded upper cells, perigonia situated below the perichaetia, peristome teeth fissured to near base in 2-3 forks, and deeply lobed, and plicate mitrate or mitrate-campanulate calyptra. Previously placed in the Orthotrichales (cf. Brotherus, 1925, see general ref.); however, recent authors consider an independent Ptychomitriaceae close to the Grimmiaceae, or, as presented here, included within the family. Our species appear to be uncommon, occurring at high elevations probably from mid montane to páramo and puna, in open sites on rocks, rarely on logs. The species described from Bolivia as Ptychomitrium ferrugineum (Herzog) Broth. is a synonym of Erythrophyllopsis fuscula (Müll. Hal.) Hilp. (Pottiaceae). This treatment is adapted and modified from Schiavone and Biasuso (1997).


Ptychomitrium contiene ca. 40 especies distribuidas principalmente en el hemisferio sur; aproximadamente ocho especies en el Neotrópico. Ptychomitrium es reconocido por las hojas crispas y contortas en seco, con base y limbo marcada o moderadamente diferenciados, células superiores cuadradas o cuadrado-redondeadas con paredes gruesas, perigonio localizado debajo del periquecio, dientes del peristoma fisurados hasta cerca de la base en 2-3 segmentos, caliptra plegada mitrada o mitrada-campanulada, profundamente lobada.


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Plants small to somewhat large, forming dense tufts, dark green to blackish-green. Stems erect, few to several branched; in cross-section outer 2-3 rows rather small, thick-walled, inner cells larger, thin but firm-walled, central strand present. Leaves strongly crispate-incurved when dry, erect-spreading to spreading when wet, narrowly or broadly lanceolate from an ovate to oblong base, lower portion subsheathing and slightly concave, plicate, limb keeled or channeled, apex acuminate; margins recurved or reflexed below, limb entire or sharply serrate; costae single, somewhat strong, percurrent, in cross-section stereids above and below guide cells; lamina unistratose below, limb uni- to bistratose; upper laminal cells quadrate to quadrate-rounded, thick-walled, walls straight to weakly sinuose; lower cells long rectangular, thick-walled and distinctly sinuose; basal cells large, rectangular, somewhat lax. Gemmae absent. Autoicous -cryptocious. Perigonia and perichaetia in separate inflorescence, each stalked; leaves differentiated, smaller than stem leaves. Setae 1-4 per perichaetium, stout, smooth. Capsules erect, urn short ovoid or ovoid cylindrical, older ones mostly cylindrical, exothecial cells mostly elongate, irregularly oblong, thick-walled; stomata at urn base, superficial; annuli present, large, persistent; opercula long rostrate; peristome single, teeth 16, divided into 2 narrow and long segments to near base, perforate below segments, papillose-spiculose. Calyptrae mitrate to mitrate-campanulate, covering most of capsule, deeply lobed, distally scabrous or roughened, plicate. Spores spherical, lightly papillose.


Plantas pequeñas hasta algo grandes, formando manojos densos, verde oscuras hasta verde-negruzcas. Tallos erectos, poco hasta muy ramificados; en corte transversal 2-3 filas externas de células bastante pequeñas, con paredes gruesas, células internas mayores, con paredes delgadas pero firmes, cordón central presente. Hojas marcadamente crispado-incurvadas en seco, erecto-extendidas hasta patentes en húmedo, angostamente o anchamente lanceoladas desde una base ovada hasta oblonga, porción inferior subamplectante y escasamente cóncava, plegada, limbo carinado o acanalado, ápices acuminados; márgenes recurvados o reflexos abajo, limbo entero o claramente serrado; costa simple, algo fuerte, percurrente, en corte transversal estereidas encima y debajo de las células guías; lámina uniestratificada abajo, limbo uni- a biestratificado; células superiores de la lámina cuadradas hasta cuadrado-redondeadas, con paredes gruesas, paredes rectas hasta débilmente sinuosas; células inferiores largo-rectangular, paredes celulares gruesas y conspicuamente sinuosas; células basales grandes, rectangulares, algo laxas. Yemas ausentes. Autoicas –criptoicas. Perigonio y periquecio en inflorescencias separadas, cada uno en una rama; hojas diferenciadas, hojas menores que las hojas del tallo. Setas 1-4 por periquecio, robustas, lisas. Cápsulas erectas, urna corto-ovoide o ovoide cilíndrica, las más antiguas generalmente cilíndricas, células exoteciales generalmente alargadas, irregularmente oblongas, paredes gruesas; estomas en la base de la urna, superficiales; anillo presente, grande, persistente; opérculo largo-rostrado; peristoma simple, con 16 dientes, partidos en 2 segmentos angostos y largos hasta cerca de la base, segmentos perforados abajo, papiloso-espiculados. Caliptra mitrada a mitrada-campanulada, cubriendo la mayor parte de la cápsula, profundamente lobada, distalmente escabrosa o rugosa, plegada. Esporas esféricas, levemente papilosas.


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1. Leaf margins serrate … P. lepidomitrium
1. Leaf margins entire … 2.
2. Leaves bistratose along the margin in several rows; capsules narrowly cylindrical; calyptrae covering ca. a third of the capsules … P. angusticarpum
2. Leaves bistratose though; capsules ovoid-obloid to globose; calyptrae covering half or to the base of the capsules ... 3.
3. Laminal cells bulging mammillose; capsules globose … P. chimborazense
3. Laminal cells smooth; capsules ovoid-obloid … 4.
4. Plants very small (to 7 mm high); leaves appressed when dry, apices inflexed; 1 sporophyte per perichaetia … P. aligrimmiodes
4. Plants larger, 15-45 mm high; leaves incurved to crispate circinate; 1-2 sporophytes per perichaetia … 5.
5. Plants small, to 15 mm high; leaf base narrowly sheathing; basal leaf margin plane; peristome teeth trabeculate; calyptrae reaching base of capsules … P. lindmanii
5. Plants robust, ca. 30-45 mm high; leaves lanceolate-ligulate; basal leaf margins revolute; peristome teeth papillose, lacking trabecula; calyptrae reaching ca. half the capsule … P. sellowianum
1. Hojas uniestratificadas a todo lo largo … P. lepidomitrium
1. Hojas parcialmente a completamente biestratificadas arriba … 2.
2. Lámina superior (limbo) de la hoja sólo biestratificada a lo largo del margen; cápsulas angostamente cilíndricas; caliptra cubriendo aprox. un tercio de la cápsula … P. angusticarpum
2. Lámina superior de la hoja biestratificada; cápsulas ovoide-obladas a globosas; caliptra cubriendo la mitad o hasta la base de la cápsula … 3.
3. Células de la lámina abultado mamilosas, cápsulas globosas … P. chimborazense
3. Células de la lámina lisas; cápsulas ovoide-obladas … 4.
4. Plantas muy pequeñas (hasta 7 mm de alto); hojas adpresas en seco, ápices inflexos; 1 esporofito por periquecio … P. aligrimmiodes
4. Plantas más grandes, 15-45 mm de alto; hojas incurvas a crispadas circinadas; 1-2 esporofitos por periquecio … 5.
5. Plantas pequeñas, hasta 15 mm de alto; base foliar anchamente vaginante; margen foliar basal plano; dientes del peristoma trabeculados; caliptra alcanzando la base de las cápsulas … P. lindmanii
5. Plantas robustas, aprox. 30-45 mm de alto; hojas lanceolado-liguladas; márgenes foliares basales revolutos; dientes del peristoma papilosos, sin trabéculas; caliptra alcanzando aprox. la mitad de la cápsula … P. sellowianum
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