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Published In: The Genera of South African Plants 384–385, 427. 1838. (Aug–Dec 1838) (Gen. S. Afr. Pl.) Name publication detail

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 5/28/2009)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 10/28/2017)
Plant Category: Moss

Notes     (Last Modified On 10/28/2017)
general taxon notes:
Schizymenium is estimated to contain 50 or more species. The tropical Andes represent the major center of diversity with about 25 or more species. Eighteen species are recognized for Bolivia, most not well known. Features characterizing the genus include the light green or yellowish brown, soft tufted plants with lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate unbordered leaves with mostly a subpercurrent costa, plane margins and linear to linear-fusiform upper laminal cells, lateral-appearing perichaetia and a single peristome represented by an endostome, or double peristome with exostome reduced and endostome well developed. Species of Schizymenium were previously placed in Mielichhoferia. Much of the distinction between species is based on peristomial features. Collecting sterile specimens is considered unadvisable. For further comments and distinction between Schizymenium and related taxa see comments under Mielichhoferia. The present account of Schizymenium for Bolivian provides information based largely on the original descriptions of Herzog (1909, 1916), and recent studies and floristic studies by Shaw given below as well as the treatment in Sharp et al. (1994) and by Allen for the Central American moss flora (2002: 408-420). This also includes notes and slides that were made of several species some years ago while working at various herbaria (H, JE, NY). Attempts to name Bolivian collections of Schizymenium have been delayed until the majoriety of specimens could be studied at one time, in part due to the fact that a number of collections contained too few sporophytes, and often even fewer with the potential of having peristomes in good condition for study.
Se estima que Schizymenium tiene 50 o más especies. Los Andes tropicales representan el mayor centro de diversidad con ca. 25 especies o más. Dieciocho especies son registradas en Bolivia, la myoría no son bien conocidas. Las características distintivas de este género incluyen el color verde claro o pardo amarillento, plantas en manojos suaves con hojas lanceoladas hasta oblongo-lanceoladas sin borde generalmente con costa subpercurrente, márgenes planos y células superiores de la lámina lineales hasta lineo-fusiformes, periquecios aparentemente laterales y peristoma simple representado un endostoma, o peristoma doble con exostoma reducido y endostoma bien desarrollado. Las especies de Schizymenium fueron localizadas previamente en Mielichhoferia. La diferenciación entre especies se basa en las características del peristoma. Colectar especímenes estériles es poco aconsejable. Para leer más comentarios sobre las diferencias entre Schizymenium y los taxa relacionados ver los comentarios de Mielichhoferia.

Reference List     (Last Modified On 10/28/2017)


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Plants commonly small to occasionally medium sized, forming dense soft tufts, glossy to dull pale green to yellowish brown. Stems erect, several to many branched by innovations; in cross-section central strand present. Leaves erect to erect-spreading, crowded above, distant below, oblong-lanceolate to lanceolate, apex acute to acuminate; margins plane, serrulate to serrate distally; costae single, mostly subpercurrent, rarely excurrent; laminal cells smooth, upper and median cells linear-fusiform or-rhomboidal, mostly thin-walled; basal cells rectangular. Paroicous less often synoicous or dioicous. Perichaetia terminal on stems, but appearing lateral by innovations ("pseudolateral"), leaves smaller than stem leaves. Setae short (equal the seta length) to elongate, often flexuose, smooth. Capsules erect to more commonly inclined to subpendent, symmetric or asymmetric and curved, pyriform or cylindrical-pyriform, neck short to long (to as long as urn); annuli usually well developed; opercula conic or conic-apiculate; peristome single with endostomial basal membrane short to high with 16 segments, smooth or papillose, cilia absent or reduced, or peristome rarely double, exostome teeth 16, often reduced, smooth or papillose, with an endostome somewhat well developed or reduced. Calyptrae cucullate, smooth and naked. Spores spherical, lightly to densely papillose.


Plantas comúnmente pequeñas hasta ocasionalmente medianas, formando manojos densos suaves, de color verde pálido brillante a opaco hasta pardo-amarillento. Tallos erectos, poco a muy ramificado por innovaciones; cordón central presente en corte transversal. Hojas erectas a erecto-extendidas, agregadas hacia arriba, distantes hacia abajo, oblongo-lanceoladas a lanceoladas, ápices agudos a acuminados; márgenes planos, distalmente serrulados a serrados; costa simple, generalmente subpercurrente, rara vez excurrente; células de la lámina lisas, células superiores y medias lineo-fusiformes o romboidales, generalmente con paredes delgadas; células basales rectangulares. Paroicas menos a menudo sinoicas o dioicas. Periquecios en la porción terminal de los tallos, pero de apariencia lateral por innovaciones ("pseudolaterales"), hojas menores que las hojas del tallo. Setas cortas (setas de la misma longitud) hasta alargadas, a menudo flexuosas, lisas. Cápsulas erectas a más comúnmente inclinadas hasta subpendientes, simétricas o asimétricas y curvadas, piriformes o cilíndrico-piriformes, cuello corto hasta largo (tan largo como la urna); anillo generalmente bien desarrollado; opérculo cónico o cónico-apiculado; peristoma simple con la membrana basal del endostoma corta o alta con 16 segmentos, lisos o papilosos, cilios ausentes o reducidos, o peristoma rara vez doble, exostoma con 16 dientes, a menudo reducidos, lisos o papilosos, con el endostoma un poco desarrollado o reducido. Caliptra cuculada, lisa y desnuda. Esporas esféricas, finamente hasta densamente papilosas.


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1. Peristome double, both exostome and endostome present … 2.
1. Peristome single and endostomial, or absent … 4.
2. Capsules inclined to subpendent; endostomial segments irregular in outline, nodose, segments distinctly longer than exostome; leaves more commonly lanceolate … S. gracilisetum
2. Capsules erect to suberect; endostomial segments ± regular in outline, not nodose, segments subequal to exostome; leaves oblong-lanceolate … 3.
3. Peristome teeth distally acuminate; leaves acute to short acuminate … S. fusiferum
3. Peristome teeth rather bluntly rounded; leaves bluntly acute … S. pseudopohlia
4. Peristome absent … S. pusillum
4. Endostome segments present, rudimentary or rather well developed … 5.
5. Endostomial segments rather short, less than 200 µm long … 6.
5. Endostomial segments elongate, usually greater than 200 µm … 7.
6. Capsules suberect with some inclined … S. andnium
6. Capsules inclined to subpendent … S. clavellatum
7. Endostomial basal membrane short, to 40 µm long, segments not keeled … S. lindigii
7. Endostomial basal membrane± high, usually greater than 40 µm; segments often keeled … 8.
8. Segments ± regular in outline, usually smooth … S. campylocarpum
8. Segments often irregular in outline, occasionally papillose or warty … S. bogotense
1. Peristoma doble, tanto exostoma como endostoma presentes … 2.
1. Peristoma simple y endostomial, o ausente … 4.
2. Cápsulas inclinadas a subpendientes; segmentos endostomiales irregulares en el contorno, nodulosos, segmentos conspicuamente más largos que el exostoma; hojas más comúnmente lanceoladas … S. gracilisetum
2. Cápsulas erectas a suberectas; segmentos endostomiales ± regulares en el contorno, no nodulosos, segmentos subiguales al exostoma; hojas oblongo-lanceoladas … 3.
3. Dientes del peristoma distalmente acuminados; hojas agudas a corto-acuminadas … S. fusiferum
3. Dientes del peristoma muy obtusamente redondeados; hojas obtusamente agudas … S. pseudopohlia
4. Peristoma ausente … S. pusillum
4. Segmentos del endostoma presentes, rudimentarios o bastante bien desarrollados … 5.
5. Segmentos del endostoma bastante cortos, menores a 200 µm de largo … 6.
5. Segmentos del endostoma alargados, generalmente mayores a 200 µm … 7.
6. Cápsulas suberectas con algunas inclinadas … S. andnium
6. Cápsulas inclinadas a subpendientes … S. clavellatum
7. Membrana basal del endostoma corta, hasta 40 µm de largo, segmentos no carinados … S. lindigii
7. Membrana basal del endostoma alta, generalmente mayor a 40 µm; segmentos a menudo carinados … 8.
8. Segmentos ± regulares en el contorno, generalmente lisos … S. campylocarpum
8. Segmentos a menudo irregular en el contorno, ocasionalmente papilosos o verrucosos … S. bogotense
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