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Published In: Muscologiae Recentiorum Supplementum 2: 16–22. 1812. (Muscol. Recent. Suppl.) Name publication detail

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Schlotheimia can often be recognized in the field by its intense reddish color which is due to its densely tomentose stems and leaves that are dark-green above but reddish below. The plants usually occur in thick mats on tree trunks and branches, but they are also found on thin soil over rocks or boulders. The basal leaf cells in Schlotheimia are distinctively elongate‑rhomboidal, incrassate/porose, non-tuberculate and often radiate from the costal region. A diagnostic feature of the genus is its large, mitrate‑campanulate, broadly lobed calyptra that is very similar to the calyptra found in Encalypta. The endostome segments in Schlotheimia have been described as either opposite to (Vitt 1981a, 1994) or alternating with (Vitt 1989) the exostome teeth. The appearance of opposite endostome segments in Schlotheimia, however, is due to the presence of endostomes with exceptionally broad segments that are usually fully divided along the keels, and lack cilia. Thus, as recognized by Vitt (1981a) and Shaw (1986) the endostomial segments in Schlotheimia are strictly homologous to alternate, bryoid-type segments.

Macromitrium in similar to Schlotheimia in having species with elongate, incrassate, porose basal cells, but in that genus the basal cells are often tuberculate and never radiate from the costa. Groutiella can also be confused with Schlotheimia, it differs however in having limbate leaves with short basal leaf cells. Cardotiella and Schlotheimia have the same large, broadly lobed, mitrate-campanulate calyptrae, and Vitt (1981a) considered the Cardotiella and Schlotheimia exostome teeth not only very similar but the least reduced in the subfamily Macromitrioideae. Cardotiella differs from Schlotheimia in having leaves with stoutly unipapillose cells that are uniformly short and rounded throughout, and long decurrencies formed by enlarged, projecting, hyaline cells

Schlotheimia appears to be most diverse in South America and Madagascar. The genus has been treated on a regional basis in Mexico (Vitt 1994), Australia and New Zealand (Vitt 1989), New Guinea (Vitt et al. 1993) and China (Koponen & Enroth 1992).


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Schlotheimia Brid., Muscol. Recent. Suppl. 2: 16. 1812.

Plants small to medium-sized, dark-green above, reddish brown below, thickly matted with dense reddish tomentum. Primary stems creeping, with erect or ascending secondary stems or branches. Leaves imbricate, often spirally twisted around stems when dry, erect to erect-spreading, apices recurved when wet, linear-lanceolate, lingulate to oblong‑ovate; margins entire, not bordered; costae strong, percurrent to excurrent; upper cells smooth, incrassate, rounded to rhomboidal, basal cells elongate‑rhomboidal, incrassate and porose, occasionally with projecting end‑walls. Dioicous. Perichaetial leaves sometimes strongly differentiated. Setae erect, smooth; capsules usually exserted, elliptic to cylindrical, smooth or weakly furrowed; stomata present or absent; opercula short-rostrate; exostome teeth 16, linear‑lanceolate, densely horizontally striate on outer surface, median furrow weakly or strongly developed, endostome of 16 broad segments, occasionally splitting into 32 narrow segments, often fully divided along the keels and so appearing opposite to the exostome teeth, segments nearly as long to _ the length of the exostome teeth, yellow, vertically striate on inner surface. Calyptrae mitrate-campanulate, 4–6 lobed, smooth or papillose. Spores anisosporous (isosporous outside Central America), papillose.



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