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Published In: Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 8: 5. 1864. (J. Linn. Soc., Bot.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 12/6/2009)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 10/31/2017)
Plant Category: Moss

Notes     (Last Modified On 10/31/2017)
general taxon notes:

Sematophyllum is primarily a pantropical genus with more than 100 species; about 40-50 species in the Neotropics. The history of Sematophyllum is nearly as complex as is our present understanding of the species. Rhaphidorrhynchium M. Fleisch. is sometimes segregated from Sematophyllum based on the falcate-secund leaves, a feature that is not always obvious is several of our species. Trichosteleum, as generally recognized, is usually defined by the unipapillose laminal cells which supposedly separates this genus from Sematophyllum which has smooth cells, however there are a few species in which the papillae are very difficult to detect in Trichosteleum, and some forms of a few species of Sematophyllum appear to be weakly unipapillose. Rhaphidostegium (Schimp. in Bruch, Schimp. & W. Gümbel) De Not., nom. illeg. incl. gen. prior, is a name previously used for some of our Sematophyllum's. A careful study of Sematophyllum is very much needed, with particular attention given to the gametophytic variation within and between species. Not unexpected, the aquatic or semi-aquatic species appear to pose the greatest problems related to gametophytic variation. The synonymy recognized for Sematophyllum caespitosum Mitt (= S. subpinnatum) by Dixon (1920) underestimates in the extreme the number of actual species. The status of several species described from Bolivia are not well known, and there are significant collections for which we are unable to determine.


Sematophyllum es un género principalmente a pantropical con más de 100 especies; ca. 40-50 especies en el Neotrópico. La historia de Sematophyllum es casi tan compleja como nuestra comprensión actual de las especies. Rhaphidorrhynchium M. Fleisch. ha sido algunas veces segregado de Sematophyllum debido a sus hojas falcado-secundas, una característica que no es siempre obvia en varias de nuestras especies. Trichosteleum, reconocido así generalmente, es definido usualmente por las células de la lámina unipapilosas, característica que supuestamente separa a este género de Sematophyllum que tiene las células lisas, sin embargo, hay pocas especies de Trichosteleum en las cuales las papilas son muy difíciles de detectar, y algunas formas de pocas especies de Sematophyllum parecen ser débilmente unipapilosas.


The status of the following species of the genera Rhaphidostegium and Sematophyllum require further study, some, e.g. Rhaphidostegium eurycystis Herzog, appear to be distinct.


Rhaphidostegium (Schimp.) De Not., nom. illeg. = Sematophyllum

Rhaphidostegium is a nomenclatural synonym of Sematophyllum; status of the following names are presently unknown:


Rhaphidostegium capillifolium Herzog, Biblioth. Bot. 88: 23. 12. 1920. Rhaphidorrhynchium capilliforium (Herzog) Broth., Nat. Pflanzenfam. (ed. 2) 11: 427. 1925. Type: Bolivia. Auf Baumrinde im feuchten Bergwald des Coranitales, Herzog 3392 (JE!). The type collection is allied or equal to Sematophyllum swartzii. The leaves are falcate, linear-lanceolate, 1.2-1.5 mm long, to 0.2 mm wide, margins recurved, serrulate distally, exothecial cells of urn strongly collenchymatous.


Rhaphidostegium chiquitanum Herzog, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 26(2): 86. 1909. Type: Bolivia. Auf faulem Holz im Bergwalde des Cerro de Santiago (Chiquitos), ca. 700 m, Mai 1907, Herzog.


Rhaphidostegium densirete Herzog, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 26(2): 87. 1909. Type: Bolivia. An Felsen in der Quebrada de Cuñueú (Ostcordillere), ca. 600 m, Oktober 1907, Herzog.

Rhaphidostegium eurycystis Herzog, Biblioth. Bot. 87: 155. 74 a-f. 1916. Syntypes: Bolivia: An Bäumen in der Cordillere von Santa Cruz, ca. 1400 m, Herzog 3527/a; an Bäumen im Bergwald von Florida de San Mateo, ca. 2000 m, Herzog 3648.


Rhaphidostegium geheebii Herzog, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 26(2): 85. 1909. Rhaphidorrhynchium geheebii (Herzog) Broth., Nat. Pflanzenfam. (ed. 2) 11: 426. 1925. Type: Bolivia. Auf faulem Holz im Bergurwalde von Santiago de Chiquitos, ca. 700 m, Mai 1907, Herzog.


Rhaphidostegium guarayum Herzog, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 26(2): 86. 1909. Type: Bolivia. An einem Baumstamme bei der Lagunade Kaaup (Urwälder von Guarayus am Rio Blanco), 15ºs Br., August 1907, Herzog. Elevation ca. 400 m.


Rhaphidostegium rueckeri Herzog, Biblioth. Bot. 88: 23. 1920. Rhaphidorrhynchium rueckeri (Herzog) Broth., Nat. Pflanzenfam. (ed. 2) 11: 427. 1925. Type: Auf Baumästen an der Waldgrenze über Tablas, ca. 3400 m, Herzog 2881-a.


Rhaphidostegium undulatum Herzog, Biblioth. Bot. 87: 156. 75. 1916. Syntypes: Bolivia. In der Talschlucht bei Tablas, ca. 1800 m, Herzog 4537; im Bergwald bei Incacorral, ca. 2200 m, Herzog 5092.


Sematophyllum andinum Mitt., Rhaphidorrhynchium andinum (Mitt.) Broth.,

Type: Ecuador. Andes Quitenses, Leito, in lignis (8000 ped.), Spruce 985 (NY). Reported for Bolivia at 1500 m.


Sematophyllum aureoviride (Müll. Hal.) Broth., Nat. Pflanzenfam. (ed. 2) 11: 431. 1925. Aptychus aureoviridis Müll. Hal.,Hedwigia 36: 122. 1897. Type: ?


Sematophyllum brachyacrum (Müll. Hal.) Broth., Nat. Pflanzenfam. (ed. 2) 11: 432. 1925. Aptychus brachyacrus Müll. Hal., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. n. s. 4: 153. 1897. Rhaphidostegium brachyacrum (Müll. Hal.) Paris, Index Bryol. 1087. 1898. Type: Bolivia. [Tarija] Bolivia australis, Cuesta colorada inter San Luis et Amoreta, 17 Junio 1873, Lorentz.


Sematophyllum flavidum Mitt., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 12: 482. 1869. Type: Colombia. [Cundinamarca] Andes Bogotenses, ad viam inter Bogota et Fusagasuga (8600 ped.) in ramulis emortuis, Weir 233. Reported for Bolivia.


Sematophyllum longisetum (R. S. Williams) Broth., Nat. Pflanzenfam. (ed. 2) 11: 433. 1925. Potamium longisetum R. S. Williams,Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 6: 250. 1910. Type: Bolivia. Apolo, 1500 meters, 10 July1902, Williams 2115.


Sematophyllum orthocarpum (Broth.) Broth., Nat. Pflanzenfam.(ed. 2) 11: 432. 1925. Rhaphidostegium orthocarpum Broth.,Biblioth. Bot. 87: 155. 1916. Type: Bolivia. Waldgrenze am Rio Saujana, alt. 3400 m, Herzog 3291.


Sematophyllum prominulum Mitt., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 12: 491. 1869. Type: Peru. Andes Peruvianae, in monte Lamas (2000 ped.), Spruce 1008. Reported for Bolivia from 960-1800 m.


Sematophyllum tenerifolium (Müll. Hal.) Broth., Nat. Pflanzenfam. (ed. 2) 11: 431. 1925. Aptychus tenerifolius Müll. Hal.,Hedwigia 37: 257. 1898. Type: ? Bolivia: 1400 m.


Sematophyllum tenuicarpum R.S. Williams, Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 6(21): 253. 1910. Type: Bolivia. Tumupasa, 430 meters, on bark, 11 Dec. 1902, Williams 2066.


Taxicaulis subcylindraceus Müll. Hal., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. n. ser. 4: 151. 1897. Isopterygium subcylindraceum (Müll. Hal.) Paris, Index Bryol. Suppl. 221. 1900. Possible type data: Bolivia. Cochabamba, prope Choquecamata, Jun 1889, Germain s.n.(H). = Sematophyllum fide Wijk et al. 1964.


Reference List     (Last Modified On 10/31/2017)


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Plants small to large or robust, forming mats, glossy green to yellowish-green or golden-brown. Stems spreading to ascending and often secund, mostly irregularly pinnately branched. Leaves broadly to narrowly ovate, lanceolate, ovate- or oblong-lanceolate, erect or falcate, apex acute to broadly or narrowly acuminate, often abruptly so; margins plane to recurved, entire or serrulate to serrate distally; ecostate (or short and weakly forked); median cells rhomboidal, fusiform or linear, smooth, thin- to thick-walled, walls entire or porose; alar region well differentiated, cells inflated, oval to oblong-oval, in few to several rows, usually 1-2(3) cells high, often golden-brown, supra-alar cells absent or present; insertion cells usually golden-brown, often porose. Autoicous or dioicous. Perigonia lateral; bud-like. Perichaetia lateral; leaves usually differentiated. Setae elongate, smooth. Capsules erect to more often suberect or inclined, urn ovoid to ovoid-short cylindrical; exothecial cells mostly collenchymatous; stomata at urn base, superficial; opercula conic-long rostrate, oblique; peristome double, exostome teeth 16, striate below, occasionally appearing furrowed, distally papillose; endostome basal membrane high, segments 16, hyaline, keeled, lightly papillose, cilia 1-2. Calyptrae cucullate, smooth and naked. Spores spherical, smooth to lightly papillose.


Plantas pequeñas a grandes o robustas, formando matas, verdes brillantes a verde-amarillentas o marrón-doradas. Tallos patentes a ascendentes y a menudo unilaterales, por lo general con ramificaciones irregularmente pinnadas. Hojas ancha a angostamente ovadas, lanceoladas, ovado- u oblongo-lanceoladas, erectas o falcadas, ápices agudos a anchamente o angostamente acuminados, a menudo abruptamente; márgenes planos a recurvados, enteros o serrulados a distalmente serrados; ecostadas (o costa corta y débilmente bifurcada); células mediales rómbicas, fusiformes o lineales, lisas, con paredes  gruesas a delgadas, paredes enteras o porosas; región alar bien diferenciada, células infladas, ovales a oblongo-ovales, en pocas a varias filas, generalmente 1-2(3) células de alto, a menudo marrón-doradas, células supra-alares ausentes o presentes; células de la inserción generalmente marrón-doradas, a menudo porosas. Autoicas o dioicas. Perigonios laterales; en forma de brotes. Periquecios laterales; hojas generalmente diferenciadas. Setas alargadas, lisas. Cápsulas erectas a más a menudo suberectas o inclinadas, urna ovoide a corto-ovoide cilíndrica; células exoteciales generalmente colenquimatosas; estomas en la base de la urna, superficiales; opérculo largo-cónico rostrado, oblicuo; peristoma doble, exostoma con 16 dientes, estriados abajo, ocasionalmente con apariencia acanalada, distalmente papilosos; membrana basal endostoma alta, 16 segmentos, hialinos, carinados, ligeramente papilosos, cilios 1-2. Caliptra cuculada, lisa y desnuda. Esporas esféricas, lisas a ligeramente papilosas.


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Keys to be revised
1. Leaves mostly straight, ± symmetric … 2.
1. Leaves mostly falcate-secund, ± asymmetric … 11.
2. Leaves broadly ovate or short oblong, mostly 2 times longer than wide; apices acute to short acuminate; cells rhomboidal to fusiform, ca. 3-4(5):1 … 3.
2. Leaves oblong- to ovate-lanceolate, 3-4 times longer than wide; apices ± narrowly acuminate, often abruptly so; cells (6)7-10:1 … 5.
3. Leaves short, (0.8)1-1.5 mm long … S. subpinnatum
3. Leaves longer, 2.5-3 mm long … 4.
4. Alar cells in 3-4 rows; leaves oblong-obovate, 2.2-2.4 times longer than wide … S. chlorocormum
4. Alar cells in 1-2(3) rows; leaves ovate to ovate-oblong, ca. 2 times longer than wide … S. loxense
5. Plants small, leaves ovate-short to rather long lanceolate, 0.7-1.5 mm long … 6.
5. Plants ± large, leaves broadly to narrowly oblong, 2 mm or more long … 8.
6. Secondary stems and branches spreading … S. subsimplex
6. Secondary stems and branches subascending, often curved… 7.
7. Leaf margins serrate 1/2 to 1/3 distally … S. decurvifolium
7. Leaf margins entire or slightly serrulate at apex … S. adnatum
8. Leaves oblong-linear, 5-6 times longer than wide, ca. 0.2-0.3 mm wide, apices gradually acuminate, often twisted … S. tequendamense
8. Leaves broadly oblong, 3-4.5 times longer than wide, ca. 0.5-0.7 mm wide, apices mostly abruptly slender acuminate, not twisted … 9.
9. Apices ± gradually acuminate … S. galipense
9. Apices abruptly long acuminate … 10.
10. Apices plane (flat or weakly concave) … S. cuspidiferum
10. Apices mostly channeled, erect to inflexed … S. subbrachycarpum
1 1. Leaves rather sharply serrate in distal 1/2-1/3 … 13.
11. Leaves entire to weakly serrulate in distal 1/3-1/5 … S. swartzii
12. Leaves ± broadly ovate-long lanceolate... S. swartzii [?& S. decumbens]
12. Leaves narrowly-long lanceolate … S. roridum
1. Hojas generalmente rectas, ± simétricas … 2.
1. Hojas generalmente falcado-secundas, ± asimétricas … 11.
2. Hojas anchamente ovadas o corto oblongas, generalmente 2 veces más largas que anchas; ápices agudos a corto acuminados; células romboidales a fusiformes, ca. 3-4(5):1 … 3.
2. Hojas oblongo- a ovado-lanceoladas, 3-4 veces más largas que anchas; ápices ± angostamente acuminados, a menudo abruptamente acuminados; células (6)7-10:1 … 5.
3. Hojas cortas, (0.8)1-1.5 mm de largo … S. subpinnatum
3. Hojas más largas, 2.5-3 mm de largo … 4.
4. Células alares en 3-4 filas; hojas oblongo-obovadas, 2.2-2.4 veces más largas que anchas … S. chlorocormum
4. Células alares en 1-2(3) filas; hojas ovadas a ovado-oblongas, ca. 2 veces más largas que anchas … S. loxense
5. Plantas pequeñas, hojas corto-ovadas a bastante largo lanceoladas, 0.7-1.5 mm de largo … 6.
5. Plantas ± grandes, hojas anchamente a angostamente oblongas, 2 mm o más largas … 8.
6. Tallos secundarios y ramas patentes … S. subsimplex
6. Tallos secundarios y ramas subascendentes, a menudo curvadas… 7.
7. Márgenes de las hojas serrados 1/2 a 1/3 distales … S. decurvifolium
7. Márgenes de las hojas enteros o escasamente serrulados en el ápice … S. adnatum
8. Hojas oblongo-lineares, 5-6 veces más largas que anchas, ca. 0.2-0.3 mm de ancho, ápices gradualmente acuminados, a menudo torcidos … S. tequendamense
8. Hojas anchamente oblongas, 3-4.5 veces más largas que anchas, ca. 0.5-0.7 mm de ancho, ápices por lo general abruptamente delgado acuminados, no torcidos … 9.
9. Ápices ± acuminados gradualmente … S. galipense
9. Ápices abruptamente largo acuminados … 10.
10. Ápices planos (planos o débilmente cóncavos) … S. cuspidiferum
10. Ápices generalmente acanalados, erectos a inflexos … S. subbrachycarpum
1 1. Hojas marcadamente serradas en 1/2-1/3 distales … 13.
11. Hojas enteras a débilmente serruladas en 1/3-1/5 distales … S. swartzii
12. Hojas ± anchamente largo-ovado lanceoladas... S. swartzii [?& S. decumbens]
12. Hojas angostamente largo lanceoladas … S. roridum
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