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Published In: Species Plantarum 2: 1106. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library
 

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 5/19/2009)
Acceptance : Accepted
Notes     (Last Modified On 12/10/2009)
general taxon notes:

      Sphagnum contains 300 or more species distributed worldwide, absent in arid to semi-dry temperate regions. More than 150 species are recorded from the Neotropics, about 75 species known from the tropical Andes. In Bolivia about 19-21 species of Sphagnum are present. Sphagnum is characterized by pale green or whitish gametophytes that are occasionally reddish or pink tinged, a terminal capitulum, fasciculate branches, often differentiated stem and branch leaves, ecostate, unistratose lamina, two alternating cell types, hyaline cells and green cells, and globose eperistomate capsules on a short to elongate pseudopodia. Sphagnum is typically found in wet sites such as margin of lakes, pools, bogs and seeps, mostly at mid to high elevations, particularly in open montane to páramo and wet puna in the tropical Andes.

      The following names have been reported for Bolivia: Sphagnum balticum (Russow) C. E. O. Jensen, S. molle Sull., S. platyphylloides Warnst. All are considered dubious.

      In this treatment keys are provided first to the sections of Sphagnum, for each section a discussion is provided, literature if pertinent to the section, keys, and alphabetically list of species. Keys are adapted from the various publications of Crum.

      To properly identify Bolivian Sphagnum it is best to obtain both stem and branch leaves in order to observe the abaxial and adaxial surfaces, and a cross-section of both leaf types. Further features to note include the surface of the stem and branches, as well as a cross-section of both. Attention should also be given to the habit, noting the orientation and number of branches per fascicle. A stain will enhance microscopic features either crystal violet in a saturated solution with water, or methylene blue mixed in a 1-2% solution of water, or substituting water for 50% alcohol.

 

Crum, H. 1984. Sphagnopsida. Sphagnaceae. N. Amer. Fl. Ser. II, part 11: 1-180.

Crum, H. 1989a. New tropical American species of Sphagnum. Bryologist 92: 98-104.

Crum, H. 1989b. Notes on South American species of Sphagnum. J. Bryol. 15: 531-536.

Crum, H. 1990a. Comments on Sphagnum sect. Sphagnum in South America. Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 17: 71-81.

Crum, H. 1990b. A new look at Sphagnum sect. Acutifolia in South America. Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 17: 83-91

Crum, H. 1993. New species of Sphagnum from South America. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 74: 145-154.

Crum, H. 1994. Miscellaneous notes on the genus Sphagnum. 5. New and notable species of South America. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 77: 233-253.

Crum, H. 1994. Miscellaneous notes on the genus Sphagnum. 6. Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 20: 129-140.

Crum, H. 1995. Miscellaneous notes on Sphagnum- 6. Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 20: 129-140.

Crum, H. 1997. Miscellaneous notes on Sphagnum- 10. Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 21: 147-159.

Crum, H. 2001. Miscellaneous notes on the genus Sphagnum- 11. Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 23: 107-114.

Crum, H. 2002. Miscellaneous notes on the genus Sphagnum- 12. Novon 12: 441-445.

Crum, H. & W. R. Buck. 1988. A contribution to the Sphagnum (Sphagnaceae) flora of Paraguay. Brittonia 40: 188-194.

McQueen, C. B. 1997. Niche diversification of Sphagnum in Bolivia. Trop. Bryol. 13: 65-73.


 

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Plants medium sized to rather robust, forming dense cushions or tufts, white or pale green to yellow, brown, or pink red tinged. Stems erect to suberect, solitary or sparsely forked, stems with fascicles of few to many spirally arranged distant or somewhat crowded branch fascicles along stem, terminating in a compact tuft or capitulum; stems in cross-section with 2 or more layers of large, hyaline thin-walled cortical cells, occasionally spirally fibrillose and porose on outer wall, wood cylinder cells small and thick-walled, often pigmented, thin-walled. Stem leaves appressed, broadly oblong- or ovate-acute, -rounded or -truncate. Branch leaves broadly elliptic to ovate or ovate-lanceolate, concave, apex narrowly to broadly acuminate; margins often channeled and incurved, entire or serrulate, at apex erosed or fimbriate; ecostate; laminal cells differentiated between large hyaline cells (leucocysts) and green linear cells (chlorocysts), the hyaline cells enclosed in a network of green cells; hyaline cells (leucocysts) oblong to rhomboidal, vermiculate with 1-several pores. Dioicous or monoicous. Perichaetia near apex, becoming lateral; leaves enlarged. Pseudopodium (seta-like)elongating at maturity. Capsules immersed in early development, at maturity exserted on a pseudopodium, urn globose, when deoperculate ovoid-cylindrical; annuli and peristome absent; opercula flat to slightly convex. Calyptrae a fragile hyaline membrane. Spores tetrahedral.
 
Plantas medianas a algo robustas, formando cojines o manojos densos, blancas o verde pálidas a amarillas, pardas, o con matices rosados o rojos. Tallos erectos a suberectos, solitarios o escasamente bifurcados, tallos con fascículos de pocas a muchas ramas, ordenadas espiraladamente distantes a algo apretadas a lo largo del tallo, terminando en un manojo compacto o capítulo; tallos en sección transversal con dos o más capas de células corticales grandes, hialinas, con paredes delgadas, ocasionalmente espiraladamente fibrilosas y porosas en la pared externa, células del cilindro leñoso pequeñas y de paredes gruesas, generalmente pigmentadas. Hojas de los tallos adpresas, anchamente oblongo- u ovado-agudas, -redondeadas o -truncadas. Hojas de las ramas anchamente elípticas a ovadas u ovado -lanceoladas, cóncavas, ápice angostamente a anchamente acuminado; márgenes generalmente acanalados e incurvos, enteros o serrulados, erosos o fimbriados en el ápice; ecostadas; células de la lámina diferenciadas en células grandes hialinas (leucocistos) y células verdes lineares (clorocistos), las células hialinas encerradas en una red de células verdes; células hialinas (leucocistos) oblongas a romboidales, vermiculares con uno o varios poros. Dioicas o monoicas. Periquecios cerca del ápice, haciéndose laterales; hojas agrandadas. Pseudopodio (semejante a seta) elongado en la madurez. Cápsulas inmersas en fases iniciales, exsertas en la madurez, sobre un pseudopodio, urna globosa, cuando desoperculada ovoide-cilíndrica; anillo y peristoma ausente; opérculo plano a ligeramente convexo. Caliptra en forma de una membrana frágil. Esporas tetraédricas.
 

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Keys incomplete
 
Key to the sections of Sphagnum
 
1. Cortical cells of branch stems lacking epidermal pores; Bolivia … sect. Inretorta
1. Cortical cells of branch stems with epidermal pores … 2.
2. Cortical cells of stems and branches reinforced by delicate spiral fibrils; branch leaves broad, broadly pointed, and cucullate-concave, rough at back of apex, margins denticulate and bordered by a resorption furrow … sect. Sphagnum
2. Cortical cells of stems and branches not reinforced by spiral fibrils; branch leaves generally narrower and usually tapered to a slender, truncate apex, involute-concave, not cucullate or rough at the apex, only rarely denticulate at the margins … 3.
3. Cortical cells of branches uniform, each with a single pore at the upper end; stem leaves very small; branch leaves broadly truncate, denticulate at the margins and bordered by a resorption furrow … sect. Rigida
3. Cortical cells of branches of 2 kinds, some without pores, others enlarged and apically porose (retort-shaped); stem leaves usually not particularly small; branch leaves usually tapered to a narrow, truncate apex (rarely rounded or broadly truncate at the apex), nearly always entire except across the apex, bordered by linear cells … 4.
4. Stems simple or with 1-3 branches per fascicle … … sect. Subsecunda p.p.
4. Stems with 3 or more branches per fascicle … 5.
5. Plants often tinged with orange-yellow; branches of the capitulum sometimes curved; branch leaves often ± secund; hyaline cells of branch leaves usually with numerous pores crowded in bead-like rows along the commissures on 1 or both surfaces … sect. Subsecunda p.p.
5. Plants green, yellowish, brownish, or reddish; branches not or very rarely curved; branch leaves erect or variously spreading, not or rarely subsecund; hyaline cells with pores not particularly numerous, not crowded in commissural rows … 6.
6. Plants commonly red or red-tinged; green cells of branch leaves triangular to trapezoidal, usually exposed exclusively or more broadly on the inner surface … sect. Acutifolia
6. Plants not reddish; green cells exposed more broadly on the outer surface …. sect. Cuspidata
 
 
1. Células corticales de las ramas de los tallos sin poros epidérmicos … sec. Inretorta
1. Células corticales de las ramas de los tallos con poros epidérmicos … 2.
2. Células corticales de tallos y ramas reforzadas por delicadas fibrillas en espiral; hojas de las ramas anchas, ampliamente rostradas, y cuculado-cóncavas, envés del ápice áspero, márgenes denticulados y bordeados por un canal de resorción … sec. Sphagnum
2. Células corticales de tallos y ramas reforzadas por delicadas fibrillas en espiral; hojas de las ramas generalmente angostas y estrechándose hasta un ápice delgado y truncado, involuto-cóncavo, ápice no cuculado o áspero, rara vez con márgenes denticulados … 3.
3. Células corticales de las ramas uniformes, cada una con un solo poro en el extremo superior; hojas de los tallos muy pequeñas; hojas de las ramas ampliamente truncadas, árgenes denticulados y bordeadas por canals de resorción … sec. Rigida
3. Células corticales de las ramas de 2 tipos, unas sin poros, otras agrandadas y apicalmente porosas (lageniformes); hojas del tallo en general no especialmente pequeñas; hojas de las rama generalmente estrechándose hasta un ápice delgado y truncado (rara vez redondeado o ampliamente truncadas en el ápice), casi siempre enteras excepto en el ápice, bordeadas por células lineales … 4
4. Tallos simples o con 1-3 ramas por fascículo … sec. Subsecunda p.p.
4. Tallos con 3 o más ramas por fascículo … 5.
5. Plantas a menudo teñidas de naranja-dorado; ramas del capítulo algunas veces curvadas; hojas de las ramas a menudo ± unilaterales; células de las hojas de las ramas hialinas generalmente con numerosos poros agregados en forma de gotas en filas a lo largo las comisuras sobre 1 o ambas superficies … sec. Subsecunda p.p.
5. Plantas verde, amarillentas, parduscas, o rojizas; ramas no o muy rara vez curvadas; hojas de las ramas erectas o diversamente patentes, no o rara vez subsecundas; células hialinas con poros no especialmente numerosos, no agregados en filas en las comisuras … 6.
6. Plantas comúnmente rojas o teñidas de rojo, células de las hojas de las ramas verdes triangulares a trapezoidales, generalmente expuestos exclusivamente o más ampliamente sobre la superficie interna … sec. Acutifolia
6. Plantas no rojizas; células verdes expuestas más ampliamente sobre la superficie externa …. sec. Cuspidata
 
 
Section Acutifolia
 
1. Stem epidermal cells not or rarely with an occasional porose cell … S. tenerum
1. Stem epidermal cells porose … 2.
2. Branch leaf apical cells on outer surface with a few scattered, tiny, round pores, lower cells with few or ringed, elliptic pores and pseudopores; chlorocyst cells of branch leaves narrowly exposed on both surfaces … S. meridense
2. Branch leaf apical cells on outer surface with elliptic, ringed pores throughout; green cells of branch leaves ± triangular in section, with broader exposure on the upper surface … 3.
3. Branch leaf apical cells on outer surface with small, ringed, elliptic pores conspicuously grouped in 3's at adjacent angles; stem leaf hyalocysts with ± rudimentary fibrils and membrane pleats on outer surface, largely resorbed on the inner … S. sparsum
3. Branch leaf apical cells on outer surface with large, ringed, elliptic commissural pores throughout; stem leaf hyalocysts fibrillose in the upper half or more, on the outer surface with many ringed, elliptic commissural pores, on the inner with rather numerous round, pore-like gaps, especially at corners … S. limbatum
 
1. Células epidérmicas del tallo no o rara vez con una célula porosa ocasional … S. tenerum
1. Células epidérmicas del tallo porosas … 2.
2. Células apicales de las hojas de las ramas en la superficie externa con pocos poros esparcidos, pequeños y redondos, células inferiores con poros elípticos y pseudoporos pocos o anillados; clorocistos de las hojas de las ramas angostamente expuestos en ambas superficies … S. meridense
2. Células apicales de las hojas de las ramas en la superficie externa con poros elípticos, completamente anillado; células verdes de las hojas de las ramas ± triangulares en corte tranversal, con exposición más amplia en la superficie superior … 3.
3. Células apicales de las hojas de las ramas en la superficie externa con poros pequeños, anillados y elípticos conspicuamente en grupos de 3 en los ángulos adyacentes; hialocistos de las hojas del tallo con fibrillas ± rudimentarias y pliegues en la superficie externa de la membrana, reabsorbida principalmente en el interior … S. sparsum
3. Células apicales de las hojas de las ramas en la superficie externa con poros comisurales grandes, anillados, completamente elípticos; hialocistos de las hojas del tallo fibrilosos en la mitad superior o más, en la superficie externa con muchos poros comisurales anillados, elípticos, en la superficie interna con numerosos poros redondos, poros en forma de aberturas, especialmente en las esquinas … S. limbatum
 
 
Section Cuspidata
 
1. Branch leaves not flattened or recurved at the tips, when dry margins smooth, not wavy; hyaline cells of stem leaves distally on inner surface with gaps absent, small or large but not distinctly edged by fibril stumps … S. cuspidatum
1. Branch leaves flattened and recurved at tips, margins wavy when dry; stem leaves distally on inner surface with large to small gaps and edged by fibril stumps or not … 2.
2. Stem leaves truncate-rounded, erose-fringed at apex; upper hyaline cells on the inner surface, usually resorbed, with gaps not edged by fibril stumps … S. recurvum
2. Stem leaves acute-rounded, not truncate, entire, not or somewhat erose at apex; hyaline cells near the apex of stem leaves on distal inner surface with a large membrane gap edged by fibril stumps … S. sancto-josephense
 
1. Hojas de las ramas no aplanadas o recurvadas en los extremos, en seco márgenes lisos, no ondulosos; células hialinas de las hojas del tallo sin aberturas en la superficie interna distal, pequeñas o grandes pero no conspicuamente bordeadas por fibrillas … S. cuspidatum
1. Hojas de las ramas aplanadas o recurvadas en los extremos, márgenes ondulados en seco; hojas del tallo en la superficie interna distal con aberturas grandes a pequeñas bordeadas por fibrillas o no … 2.
2. Hojas del tallo truncado-redondeadas, eroso-orladas en el ápice; células hialinas de la parte superior en la superficie interna, generalmente reabsorbidas, con aberturas no bordeadas por fibrillas … S. recurvum
2. Hojas del tallo agudo-redondeadas, no truncadas, enteras, no o algo erosas en el ápice; células hialinas de la parte superior del ápice de las hojas del tallo en la superficie interna con aberturas grande en la membrana bordeadas por fibrillas … S. sancto-josephense
 
 
Section Sphagnum
 
1. Plants commonly red or red-tinged; green cells of branch leaves central and entirely included; hyaline cells plane or nearly so on both surfaces … S. magellanicum
1. Plants green, yellowish, orange-tinged or brown, not reddish; green cells narrowly exposed on both surfaces with thickened end walls, hyaline cells rounded … 2.
2. Chlorocyst more exposed on upper surface in cross-section; few minute round pores on cell middles, particularly toward apex … S. negrense
2. Chlorocyst equally exposed in cross-section; minute round pores absent … 3.
3. Cortical cells of stem in 3-4 layers; stem leaves ± flat; branch leaves with pseudopores 2-3 in adjacent angles on outer surface, few on inner surface … S. perichaetiale
1. Cortical cells of stem in 2 layers; stem leaves concave-cucullate, similar to branch leaves; branch leaves with pseudopores 3 in adjacent angles on outer surface, numerous (5-9) on inner surface … S. imperforatum
 
1. Plantas comúnmente rojas o matizadas de rojo; células verdes de las hojas de las ramas centrales y completamente incluidas; células hialinas planas o casi planas en ambas superficies … S. magellanicum
1. Plantas verdes, amarillentas, matizadas de naranja o pardo, no rojizas; células verdes angostamente expuestas en ambas superficies con paredes engrosadas en los extremos, células hialinas redondeadas … 2.
2. Clorocistos más expuestos en la superficie superior en corte transversal; pocos poros redondos diminutos en las célula mediales, principalmente hacia el ápice … S. negrense
2. Clorocistos igualmente expuestos en corte transversal; sin poros redondos diminutose … 3.
3. Células corticales del tallo en 3-4 capas; hojas del tallo ± planas; hojas de las ramas con pseudoporos dispuestos en duplas o triadas en los ángulos adyacentes en la superficie externa, pocos poros en la superficie interna … S. perichaetiale
3. Células corticales del tallo en 2 capas; hojas del tallo concavo-cuculadas, similares a las hojas de las ramas; hojas de las ramas con pseudoporos en triadas en los ángulos adyacentes en la superficie externa, numerosos poros (5-9) en la superficie interna … S. imperforatum
 
 
Section Subsecunda
 
1. Stems fasciculate-branched; stem and branch leaves ± differentiated … 2.
1. Stems simple or rarely branched; stem and branch leaves similar … S. cyclophyllum 2. Branch leaves mostly 1.8-2.5 mm long; hyaline cells in cross-section nearly plane … S. subsecundum var. rufescens
2. Branch leaves mostly 1-1.4 mm long; hyaline cells in cross-section bulging-rounded … S. flaccidum
 
1. Tallos con ramas fasciculadas; hojas de los tallos y ramas ± diferenciadas … 2.
1. Tallos simple o rara vez ramificados; hojas de los tallos y ramas similares … S. cyclophyllum
2. Hojas de las ramas generalmente de 1.8-2.5 mm de largo; células hialinas en corte transversal casi planas … S. subsecundum var. rufescens
2. Hojas de las ramas generalmente de 1-1.4 mm de largo; células hialinas en corte transversal abultado redondeadas … S. flaccidum
 
 
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