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Published In: Species Plantarum 2: 1106. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library
 

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 2/27/2009)
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Notes     (Last Modified On 3/4/2009)
general taxon notes:

 

Sphagnum, commonly known as a peat moss or bog moss, differs from all other mosses in the structures of both gametophyte and sporophyte. There are about 250 recognized species of Sphagnum worldwide. The genus is distributed nearly throughout the world and reaches its highest abundance in the cooler temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, where it may dominate the vegetation of wetlands.
The earliest study of Chinese Sphagna was probably made by Bescherelle (1892), who reported two taxa, S. girgensohnii Russ. and S. subnitens Russ. & Warnst. var. pallescens Warnst. (= S. subnitens), from Yunnan based on the collection of a French missionary, J. M. Delavay. Subsequently, Salmon (1900) reported another two species of Sphagnum, S. cymbifolium Ehrh. (= S. palustre L.) and S. acutifolium L. [= S. capillifolium (Ehrh.) Hedw.], from Zhejiang. Cardot (1905) recorded Sphagnum cymbifolium, S. junghuhnianum Dozy & Molk., S. pseudo-cymbifolium C. Müll. (= S. palustre), and S. pseudomolle Warnst. [= S. junghuhnianum var. pseudomolle (Warnst.) Warnst.] from Taiwan. In addition, Brotherus (1905) reported Sphagnum medium Limpr. (= S. magellanicum Brid.) new to northeastern China. Warnstorf (1911) in his worldwide treatment of Sphagnum listed 4 species and 2 varieties from China. Based on Handel-Mazzetti's Chinese collection, Brotherus (1929) reported 8 species and 5 varieties of Sphagnum. Thereafter, several papers dealing with Chinese Sphagna were published by different authors (Bartram 1935; Dixon 1933; Reimers 1931; P.-T. Tchen 1936; Thériot 1932). A more recent treatment of the Chinese Sphagna was presented by P.-C. Chen & X.-J. Li (1956), who reported 25 species and 3 varieties, including 9 new records. C. Gao et al. (1977) reported 23 species of Sphagnum from northeastern China, adding 7 new records to the country. X.-L. Bai (1997) recently reported 17 species and 3 varieties from Nei Mongol. X.-J. Li (1994) treated 37 species, 2 subspecies, and 5 varieties from China. Redfearn et al. (1996) listed 44 species and 5 varieties. Sphagnum tenerum Sull. & Lesq. ex Sull. was first reported from Nei Mongol by X.-L. Bai (1991); however, Bai (1997) in his newly published Flora of the region made no mention of his previous report. The distribution of this species in China is, therefore, questionable. Eddy (1977: 402) listed Sphagnum robinsonii Warnst. from China and showed its distribution range in the country on the map. However, he did not cite any specimens or references. In this study, we recognize 46 species and 2 varieties of Sphagnum.
The genus Sphagnum apparently can be divided into several infrageneric groups. The system of subgeneric division of this large and diverse genus has been more or less at rest since the publication of Schimper (1876) and his contemporaries. Maintaining the rank of section has been widely in practical use in recent floras (Allen 1994; Crum & Anderson 1981; Eddy 1977; Sharp et al. 1994). Eddy (1977) proposed a two-tiered system in recognizing subgeneric ranks as well as the rank of sections. It appears that there is no advantage to discuss the infrageneric division in this floristic treatment of Chinese Sphagna. We have, therefore, not introduced the subgeneric grouping in this study.

 

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1. Sphagnum L.   泥碳藓属 ni-tan xian shu
Sp. Pl. 1106. 1753.
 

The description of the genus is the same as that of the family.

 

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1. Hyaline cortical cells of stems and branches with spiral fibrils and pores; branch leaves broadly ovate, cucullate-concave, rounded and dorsally roughened at the apex........................................................................ 2
1. Hyaline cortical cells of stems and branches without spiral fibrils, sometimes with pores; branch leaves generally narrowly ovate, not cucullate-concave, truncate, not dorsally roughened at the apex................... 9
2. Green cells of branch leaves in cross section centrally located and entirely enclosed by large, hyaline cells on both surfaces.................................................................................................... 21. S. magellanicum
2. Green cells of branch leaves in cross section exposed on 1 or both surfaces............................................ 3
3. Cortical cells of stems with a single pore on the external walls; green cells in cross section narrowly elliptic, exposed equally on both surfaces.......................................................................... 29. S. perichaetiale
3. Cortical cells of stems with 2 to several pores on the external walls; green cells in cross section triangular, exposed entirely or more broadly on the ventral surface................................................................ 4
4. Cortical cells of branches funnel-shaped and nested together at base, without pores on the external walls; branches club-shaped; branch leaves 4–6 times larger than stem leaves.......... 32. S. portoricense
4. Cortical cells of branches not funnel-shaped and plane at base, with several pores on the external walls; branches not club-shaped; branch leaves more or less as long as stem leaves ......................................... 5
5. Hyaline cells of stem leaves usually divided; the inner walls of hyaline cells adjacent to the green cells of branch leaves in cross section densely papillose or with fringe-fibrils........................................................... 6
5. Hyaline cells of stem leaves undivided; the inner walls of hyaline cells adjacent to the green cells of branch leaves in cross section smooth................................................................................................................ 7
6. Cortical cells of stems with numerous pores on the external walls; green cells of branch leaves in cross section isosceles-triangular, the adjacent walls of hyaline cells often with dense fringe-fibrils..............
.............................................................................................................................................. 14. S. imbricatum
6. Cortical cells of stems often with 2 pores on the external walls; green cells of branch leaves in cross section trapezoidal to nearly triangular, the adjacent walls of hyaline cells often with papillae...... 28. S. papillosum
7. Stem leaves plane, oblong-ligulate, more than 2 times as long as wide, hyaline cells densely reinforced by spiral fibrils and pores......................................................................................................... 23. S. multifibrosum
7. Stem leaves concave, short-ligulate, less than 1.5 times as long as wide, hyaline cells without fibrils or only with thickenings on the walls....................................................................................................................... 8
8. Stems and branches long and slender; green cells of branch leaves narrowly triangular .............................
............................................................................................................................ 27a. S. palustre ssp. palustre
8. Stems and branches short and stout; green cells of branch leaves equilaterally triangular..........................
....................................................................................................... 27b. S. palustre ssp. pseudocymbifolium
9. Green cells of branch leaves in cross section narrowly elliptic, centrally located....................................... 10
9. Green cells of branch leaves in cross section mostly triangular or trapezoidal, exposed on either the ventral side or the dorsal side of leaves............................................................................................................ 21
10. Branches in fascicles of 6–12; capitulum noticeably large and dense; branch leaves widely recurved when dry.............................................................................................................................. 46. S. wulfianum
10. Branches in fascicles of 5 or fewer; capitulum not noticeably large or dense; branch leaves not widely recurved when dry....................................................................................................................................... 11
11. Branch leaves more or less as long as the stem leaves .................................................................................. 12
11. Branch leaves 1.5–2 times or up to 4 times longer than the stem leaves..................................................... 14
12. Stem leaves triangular-ligulate, hyaline cells often divided; fascicles usually rather distantly set.........
................................................................................................................................... 30. S. platyphylloides
12. Stem leaves ovate-ligulate, hyaline cells undivided; fascicles usually closely set............................... 13
13. Plants stiff; stem leaves cucullate-concave, without pores at the apex, hyaline cells with pores not located at the opposite sides on the ventral surface.......................................................................... 18. S. khasianum
13. Plants soft; stem leaves involute-concave, with pores at the apex, hyaline cells with pores located at the opposite sides on the ventral surface........................................................................................... 26. S. ovatum
14. Plants yellowish green tinged with purple; fascicles densely set, concealing stems; cortical cells of branches uniform, each with 1 pore at the upper end; branch leaves usually 4 times larger than stem leaves
............................................................................................................................................. 5. S. compactum
14. Plants light green to grayish green; fascicles usually rather distantly set; cortical cells of branches 2 kinds, some without pores, others with enlarged, retort-shaped, apically located pores; branch leaves 1.5–2 times larger than stem leaves........................................................................................................ 15
15. Branch leaves narrowly ovate, tapered and involute at the apex; borders of stem leaves not widened below, nearly even throughout.......................................................................................................... 22. S. microporum
15. Branch leaves broadly ovate to oblong-ovate, cucullate-concave at the apex; borders of stem leaves narrowed above, gradually to suddenly widened below................................................................................. 16
16. Stem leaves with borders strongly widened below (ca. 1/4 leaf base); branch leaves broadly ovate and strongly concave, with straight, truncate and dentate apices...................................... 3. S. aongstroemii
16. Stem leaves with borders gradually widened below; branch leaves oblong-ovate and moderately concave, with upcurved-secund and not dentate apices.......................................................................... 17
17. Stem cortex in 1 layer....................................................................................................................................... 18
17. Stem cortex in 2 or more layers....................................................................................................................... 20
18. Stem leaves less than ½ as long as branch leaves, with fibrils and pores only at the apex......................
....................................................................................................................................... 42. S. subsecundum
18. Stem leaves more than ½ as long as branch leaves, with fibrils and pores developed below the apex..................................................................................................................................................................... 19
19. Stem leaves fibrillose in the upper ½ or less, without or with few pores on the dorsal surface, several to many pores on the ventral surface.......................................................................................... 15. S. inundatum
19. Stem leaves fibrillose in the upper ½ –2/3, with many pores on the dorsal surface, without or with few pores on the ventral surface.................................................................................................. 9. S. denticulatum
20. Terminal buds not notably large; branches differentiated into spreading and pendent types, concealing the stems, with secund leaves; stem leaves clearly smaller than branch leaves; hyaline cells of branch leaves without or with few pores on the ventral surface.................................................. 6. S. contortum
20. Terminal buds distinctly large; branches not clearly differentiated into spreading and pendent types, not concealing the stems, with imbricate leaves; stem leaves as long as branch leaves; hyaline cells of branch leaves with many pores on the ventral surface......................................... 31. S. platyphyllum
21. Green cells of branch leaves mostly trapezoidal, exposed on the ventral surface....................................... 22
21. Green cells of branch leaves mostly triangular, exposed on the dorsal surface.......................................... 34
22. Hyaline cells of branch leaves without spiral fibrils; stem and branch leaves apiculate....................... 39. S. sericeum
22. Hyaline cells of branch leaves with spiral fibrils; stem leaves round-obtuse to acuminate; branch leaves truncate at the apex........................................................................................................................ 23
23. Stem leaves fimbriate or lacerate-fringed across the broad apex, with a sieve-like triangular area of resorption at the middle of leaf base.................................................................................. 13. S. girgensohnii
23. Stem leaves entire or toothed, sometimes only slightly fimbriate across a portion of the apex, without sieve-like area at the middle of leaf base........................................................................................................ 24
24. Hyaline cortical cells of stems with pores.............................................................................................. 25
24. Hyaline cortical cells of stems without pores........................................................................................ 29
25. Stem leaves ligulate, hyaline cells with pores only near the apices.............................................................. 26
25. Stem leaves triangular, hyaline cells usually porous...................................................................................... 27
26. Branch leaves ovate-lanceolate, abruptly narrowed to a channelled and squarrose apex............................................ 38. S. russowii
26. Branch leaves oblong-lanceolate, gradually narrowed toward a straight apex................ 37. S. rubellum
 27. Borders of stem leaves narrowly developed above, clearly widened below; spreading branches often in group of 3; branch leaves usually in 5 ranks, oblong-lanceolate with a straight apex............................. 34. S. quinquefarium
27. Borders of stem leaves narrowly and evenly differentiated throughout the margins; spreading branches not in group of 3; branch leaves not in clearly 5 ranks, broadly ovate-lanceolate with a squarrose apex. 28
28. Plants more robust; stem leaves ca. 1.8 mm long; branch leaves 1.5–2.0 mm long; stem cortical cells freely porous; hyaline cells of stem leaves with commissural pores on both surfaces..........................
............................................................................................. 17a. S. junghuhnianum var. junghuhnianum
28. Plants soft, slender; stem leaves ca. 1.0 mm long; branch leaves ca. 1.3 mm long; stem cortical cells often without pores or only with large, single pore in some cells; upper hyaline cells of stem leaves without pores, lower hyaline cells with a few pores on the ventral surface.............................................
.................................................................................................. 17b. S. junghuhnianum var. pseudomolle
29. Stem leaves oblong-ligulate with a broadly rounded apex, marginal borders distinctly widened at base.. 30
29. Stem leaves oblong-triangular with a broadly acute to cucullate-concave apex, marginal borders not distinctly widened at base................................................................................................................................. 31
30. Branch leaves usually not in rows and not recurved at the tips, upper hyaline cells with large, elliptic, moderately ringed pores......................................................................................................... 12. S. fuscum
30. Branch leaves often in 5 rows and recurved at the tips, upper hyaline cells with minute, rounded to rounded-elliptic, strongly ringed pores......................................................................... 45. S. warnstorfii
31. Plants shiny when dry, bluish or purple-brown when moist; hyaline cells of stem leaves without fibrils. 32
31. Plants not shiny when dry, often red or pink when moist; hyaline cells of stem leaves frequently with fibrils, more fibrils in the upper cells............................................................................................................. 33
32. Margins of stem leaves narrowly and evenly bordered throughout, hyaline cells with numerous pores on the ventral surface; branch leaves abruptly narrowed from a broadly ovate base to a cucullate apex
........................................................................................................................................ 1. S. acutifolioides
32. Margins of stem leaves narrowly bordered above, clearly widened at base, hyaline cells without pores on both surfaces; branch leaves gradually narrowed from an oblong-ovate base to a channeled apex.................................................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................. 41. S. subnitens
33. Stem leaves with cucullate-concave and pointed apices, upper hyaline cells with 1–2 pores on the dorsal surface; plants usually red ..................................................................................................... 4. S. capillifolium
33. Stem leaves with broadly obtuse to rounded apices, hyaline cells without pores or rarely with 1 pore in some upper cells on the dorsal surface; plants usually pink.......................................... 24. S. obtusiusculum
34. Stem leaves ligulate with broad, dentate apices, hyaline cells mostly resorbed on the dorsal surface; branch leaves not undulate when dry, more or less squarrose at acumen, hyaline cells papillose on the inner walls adjacent to the green cells.............................................................................................. 35
34. Stem leaves triangular to triangular-ligulate with narrow apices, hyaline cells mostly resorbed on the ventral surface; branch leaves often undulate when dry, not squarrose at acumen, hyaline cells smooth on the inner walls adjacent to the green cells........................................................................... 36
35. Plants monoicous, robust; perichaetial leaves clearly smaller than branch leaves; branch leaves strongly squarrose at acumen, hyaline cells with ringed pores at corners on the ventral surface..................... 40. S. squarrosum
35. Plants dioicous, slender; perichaetial leaves similar to branch leaves in size; branch leaves slightly squarrose or erect at acumen, hyaline cells with unringed pores distantly set along commisures on the ventral surface......................................................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................................................... 44. S. teres
36. Borders of stem leaves suddenly widened from the middle to the base................................................ 37
36. Borders of stem leaves narrow, evenly differentiated throughout......................................................... 45
37. Stem leaves triangular, suddenly acute at the apex.......................................................................................... 38
37. Stem leaves short-ligulate or triangular-ligulate, rounded-obtuse at the apex............................................. 41
38. Stem leaves oblong-triangular to isosceles-triangular, upper hyaline cells with fibrils and pores.........
............................................................................................................................................ 8. S. cuspidatum
38. Stem leaves short equilateral-triangular, hyaline cells without fibrils and pores................................. 39
39. Stem leaves apiculate, not erose at the apex................................................................................... 11. S. fallax
39. Stem leaves broadly acute, slightly to distinctly erose across the apex....................................................... 40
40. Stem leaves slightly erose at the apex; hyaline cells of branch leaves generally without pores..............
........................................................................................................................................ 2. S. angustifolium
40. Stem leaves distinctly erose across the apex; hyaline cells of branch leaves with several large pores on both surfaces.................................................................................................................. 35. S. recurvum
41. Branch leaves acuminate with a single-celled apex............................................................. 33. S. pungifolium
41. Branch leaves generally blunt and truncate with a dentate apex..................................................................... 42
42. Hyaline cells of stem leaves densely fibrillose and porous.......................................... 10. S. falcatulum
42. Hyaline cells of stem leaves without fibrils and pores, or rarely with traces of fibrils toward the leaf tips...................................................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................................................... 43
43. Stem leaves triangular-ligulate, somewhat erose and dentate, with a very obscure sieve-like triangular area below the apex...................................................................................................................... 25. S. obtusum
43. Stem leaves short ligulate, strongly lacerated, with a distinct sieve-like triangular area extending from the apex to the middle or below............................................................................................................................. 44
44. Plants orange-brown or copper-colored when moist, reddish brown when dry; terminal buds not distinctive; hyaline cells of stem leaves undivided; branch leaves bordered by 1–2 rows of linear cells.................................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................. 19. S. lenense
44. Plants green to yellowish green when moist, light brown when dry; terminal buds very large; hyaline cells of stem leaves more or less once or twice divided toward the leaf apex; branch leaves bordered by 2–5 rows of linear cells................................................................................................. 36. S. riparium
45. Stem and branch leaves clearly differentiated in size, especially in width; hyaline cells of stem leaves without pores; branch leaves ovate-lanceolate, gradually narrowed to a channelled apex.......................... 46
45. Stem and branch leaves similar in size; hyaline cells of stem leaves with pores; branch leaves oblong-elliptic, strongly concave with incurved upper margins, acute to broadly acute at the apex...................... 47
46. Stem cortex in1–2 layers; stem leaves ½ as long as branch leaves, hyaline cells undivided; plants not shiny when dry....................................................................................................................... 16. S. jensenii
46. Stem cortex in 2–3 layers; stem leaves nearly as long as branch leaves, hyaline cells 1-divided; plants shiny when dry................................................................................................................ 7. S. cuspidatulum
47. Stem cortex in 1 layer; hyaline cells of branch leaves with small, rounded, ringed pores along the commissures, green cells trapezoidal in cross section......................................................... 20. S. luzonense
47. Stem cortex in 2–3 layers; hyaline cells of branch leaves with 2–4 small, rounded ringed pores at the corners, green cells triangular in cross section........................................................................ 43. S. tenellum

 

 
 
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