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Published In: Die Musci der Flora von Buitenzorg 3: 952. 1908. (Musci Buitenzorg) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 11/16/2012)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 10/8/2017)
Plant Category: Mosses
General Reference:

Notes     (Last Modified On 10/8/2017)

Thamniopsis is a pantropical genus containing about 15 species (cf. Buck 1987, Vaz-Imbassahy 2009). The majority of the species of this genus are found in the Neotropics. A distinctive feature in Thamniopsis, compared with other genera found among neotropical members of this family, is the strong leaf dimorphism exhibited among several species between stems and branches for several of the species presently assigned to this genus. In Bolivia and in general for the tropical Andes Thamniopsis is predominately restricted to montane forest.


Thamniopsis es un género pantropical contiene ca. 15 especies (cf. Buck 1987, Vaz-Imbassahy 2009). La mayoría de las especies de este género se encuentran en el Neotrópico. Una característica distintiva de Thamniopsis, comparado con otros géneros neotropicales de esta familia, es el fuerte dimorfismo entre hojas de los tallos y las ramas en varias especies actualmente asignadas a este género. En los Andes tropicales, Thamniopsis está predominantemente restringida al montano bosque.


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Plants mostly medium sized to somewhat large, forming mats, pale to dark green, yellowish to golden. Primary stems creeping; in cross-section hyalodermis present, central strand absent. Secondary stems creeping, spreading, subpendent to ascending, stipitate or not. Leaves of stems and branches dimorphic rarely monomorphic, usually weakly to strongly complanate, ovate, ovate-oblong or oblong-lanceolate, smooth or undulate, apex obtuse, acute or abruptly long acuminate, base often rounded or subauriculate; margins entire to more commonly serrate, often sharply so, teeth single or bifid, less often (on stem leaves) serrulate or dentate distally or entire; costae double, 1/2-2/3(-4/5) lamina length, diverging or parallel, smooth or toothed on back; median cells linear or oblong-linear, narrowly rectangular, rarely rhomboidal or fusiform, smooth, walls usually weakly to strongly porose, rarely entire; basal cells usually differentiated, conspicuously enlarged, oblong or rectangular. Autoicous, rarely dioicous. Perichaetia lateral, leaves differentiated. Setae elongate, smooth. Capsules inclined to subpendent, urn cylindrical or ovoid-cylindrical; opercula conic-long rostrate; peristome double, exostome teeth densely cross-striate, distally papillose, with a strong median furrow; endostome basal membrane rather high, segments keeled and usually perforate, cilia absent. Calyptrae mitrate, smooth, base lobed. Spores spherical, usually lightly papillose.


Plantas generalmente medianas hasta algo grandes, formando matas, verde pálidas hasta oscuras, amarillentas hasta doradas. Tallos primarios reptantes; en corte transversal hialodermis presente, cordón central ausente. Tallos secundario reptantes, patentes, subpendientes hasta ascendentes, estipitados o no. Hojas de los tallos y ramas dimorfas, rara vez monomorfas, generalmente débil a marcadamente complanadas, ovadas, ovado-oblongas o oblongo-lanceoladas, lisas o unduladas, ápices obtusos, agudos o abruptamente largo-acuminados, bases a menudo redondeadas o subauriculadas; márgenes enteros a más comúnmente serrados, a menudo marcadamente serrados, dientes simples o 2-fidos, menos frecuentemente (en las hojas de los tallos) distalmente serrulados, dentados o enteros; costa doble, ocupando 1/2-2/3(-4/5) de la longitud de la lámina, divergentes o paralelas, lisas o dentadas en el envés; células mediales lineales u oblongo-lineales, angostamente rectangulares, rara vez rómbicas o fusiformes, lisas, paredes por lo general débilmente hasta marcadamente porosas, rara vez enteras; células basales generalmente diferenciadas, conspicuamente agrandadas, oblongas o rectangulares. Autoicas, rara vez dioicas. Periquecios laterales, hojas diferenciadas. Setas alargadas, lisas. Cápsulas inclinadas hasta subpendientes, urna cilíndrica u ovoide-cilíndrica; opérculo largo-cónico rostrado; peristoma doble, dientes del exostoma con muchas estrías cruzadas, distalmente papilosos, con un surco medio fuerte; membrana basal del endostoma bastante alta, segmentos carinados y generalmente perforados, cilios ausentes. Caliptra mitrada, lisa, base lobada. Esporas esféricas, generalmente finamente papiloso.


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1. Stem and branch leaves often strongly dimorphic; stem leaves broadly ovate to oblong-ovate, margins entire to serrulate distally … 2.
1. Stem and branch leaves similar, monomorphic; stem leaves ovate-lanceolate, lanceolate or obovate; margins usually strongly serrate … 4.
2. Lower stem leaves ovate-short acuminate … T. diffusa
2. Lower stem leaves broadly oblong-ovate to oblong … 3.
3. Stem leaf margins entire, leaves ca. 1-1.2 mm long; distal branch leaves coarsely serrate (at least on some leaves) … T. killipii
3. Stem leaf margins serrulate-dentate distally; leaves 1.5-1.8 mm long; branch leaves entire … T. pendula
4. Lateral leaves obovate … T. incurva
4. Lateral leaves ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate … 5.
5. Leaves 3-3.5 mm, usually strongly undulate … T. undata
5. Leaves shorter, 1.1-2 mm long, undulate or not … 6.
6. Leaf base ovate and distally strongly and rather abruptly contracted to a narrow lanceolate apex, ca. equal in length … T. sinuata
6. Leaf base and distal portion not differentiated, ± gradually acuminate or acute … T. cruegeriana
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