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Published In: Flora Boreali-Americana (Michaux) 2: 289. 1803. (Fl. Bor.-Amer.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 9/18/2009)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 10/8/2017)
Plant Category: Mosses
General Reference:

Notes     (Last Modified On 10/8/2017)

The genus is rather weedy and usually associated with open, somewhat disturbed sites; widespread but rarely common in the Neotropics. A mostly tropical and subtropical genus, Trematodon with an overstated 85 species has been placed in the Dicranaceae by some authors. The genus, with about 85 species presently accepted as valid, requires a serious revisionary study that will likely reduce the number of species to less than 20. The article by Colotti et al (2003) is useful for the southern tropical Andes, as is Britton (1913) for the northern portion, however at least a regional revision is needed for the Neotropics.


Trematodon es un musgo colonizador y generalmente está asociado con sitios abiertos frecuentemente alterados; amplia distribución pero poco común en el Neotrópico. En Bolivia dos especies son conocidas. Un género principalmente tropical y subtropical, Trematodon tiene una sobreestimación de 85 especie y es necesaria una revisión. El estudio de Colotti et al. (2003) brinda mayor información respecto a Bolivia; este tratamiento es adoptado en gran parte aquí.


Status of the following names is unknown:


Trematodon bolivianus Müll. Hal., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. n. s. 4: 38. 1897. Type: Bolivia. Sin. loc. & leg. Possible type data: Cochabamba, prope Choquecamata, Germain.


Trematodon brevirostris Hampe, Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot. 5, 5: 336. 1866. Type: Colombia. Cundinamarca, Bogota, Pie de Cuesta, 1200 m, Sept. 1863, Lindig s.n. (BM).


Trematodon fendleri Müll. Hal., Linnaea 42: 470. 1879. Type: Venezuela. 1855, Fendler 16.


Trematodon, sp.

A collection made in Colombia (Antioquia, secondary open montane forest with Fraxinus; on soil, Churchill et al. 14182-B; NY) represented a gymnostomous species. Features of this specimen included leaves 1.2-1.5 mm long; length of neck ca. equal to the urn and peristome absent. This collection did not appear to match any of the neotropical gymnostomous species of Trematodon.


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Plants somewhat small, gregarious or forming low, loose tufts, green to yellowish-green. Stems short and erect; in cross-section central strand present; radiculose below. Leaves crispate or contorted when dry, erect to erect-spreading when wet, lanceolate to broadly subulate from an ovate or oblong sheathing base, apex acute to subobtuse; margins recurved, entire or apices serrulate or dentate; costae single, subpercurrent; laminal cells smooth, median cells subquadrate; lower and basal cells rectangular. Autoicous. Perichaetia terminal; leaves convolute, longer than stem leaves. Setae elongate, slender, smooth. Capsules erect to inclined, urn ovoid (obloid) with a distinct neck equal to or much longer than urn; exothecial cells elongate, thick-walled; annuli revoluble or adhering to urn and operculum; opercula long rostrate, oblique; peristome absent or present and single, teeth 16, slightly set below urn mouth, vertical-striate, perforate, basal membrane distinct. Calyptrae cucullate, smooth and naked. Spores coarsely papillose.


Plantas algo pequeñas, gregarias o formando manojos bajos, laxos, de color verde hasta verde-amarillento. Tallos cortos y erectos; en corte transversal con cordón central; radiculosos hacia la base. Hojas crispadas o contortas en seco, erectas a erecto-extendidas en húmedo, lanceoladas hasta anchamente subuladas desde una base envainadora ovada u oblonga, ápices agudos hasta subobtusos; márgenes recurvados, enteros o con el ápice serrulado o dentado; costa simple, subpercurrente; células de la lámina lisas, células mediales subcuadradas; células inferiores y basales rectangulares. Autoicas. Periquecios terminales; hojas convolutas, más largas que las hojas del tallo. Setas largas, delgadas y lisas. Cápsulas erectas hasta inclinadas, urna ovoide (obloide) con el cuello definido igual o más largo que la urna; células exoteciales alargadas con paredes  gruesas; anillo revoluble o adherido a la urna y opérculo; opérculo largo-rostrado, oblicuo; peristoma ausente o presente y simple, con 16 dientes, localizados un poco por debajo de la boca de la urna, con estrías verticales, perforados, membrana basal diferenciada. Caliptra cuculada, lisa y desnuda. Esporas gruesamente papilosas.


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Key modified from Colotti et al. (2003)
1. Plants very small, to 2.5 mm high; capsule neck slightly longer than the urn; spores 24-27 µm in diameter … T. vaginatus
1. Plants small, 3.0-4.5 mm high; capsule neck 2 times or more longer than the urn; spores 15-21 µm in diameter … 2.
2. Plants green in color; leaf apex acute; capsule neck 2 times or more longer than the urn; peristome teeth perforated and divided, from the base to the apex … T. longicollis
2. Plants yellowish in color; leaf apex obtuse, rounded; capsule neck 2 times longer than the urn; peristome teeth perforated but not divided from the base to the apex (may be expected for Bolivia) … T. crispifolius*
1. Plantas muy pequeñas, hasta 2.5 mm de alto; cuello de la cápsula escasamente más largo que la urna; esporas de 24-27 µm de diámetro … T. vaginatus
1. Plantas pequeñas, 3.0-4.5 mm de alto; cuello de la cápsula 2 veces o más largo que la urna; esporas 15-21 µm de diámetro … 2.
2. Plantas de color verde; ápices de las hojas agudos; cuello de la cápsula 2 veces o más largo que la urna; dientes del peristoma perforados y partidos, desde la base hasta el ápice … T. longicollis
2. Plantas de color amarillento; ápices de las hojas obtusos, redondeados; cuello de la cápsula 2 veces más largo que la urna; dientes del peristoma perforados pero no partidos desde la base hasta el ápice (puede ser encontrado en Bolivia) … T. crispifolius*
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