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Published In: Synopsis Muscorum Europaeorum 493. 1860. (Syn. Musc. Eur.) Name publication detail

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 5/29/2009)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 10/31/2017)
Plant Category: Moss

Notes     (Last Modified On 10/31/2017)
general taxon notes:
The Thuidiaceae contain about 16 genera and 150 or more species widely distributed in temperate and tropical regions. Three or four genera and about 30 species are recorded for the Neotropics. In Bolivia three genera and 14 species are recognized; an additional 2-3 taxa are of uncertain status. For the study of Bolivian Thuidiaceae attention must be given to branching pattern, i.e., 1-, 2-, 3-pinnately branched; paraphyllia are needed, best observed both on stems with some of the leaves removed and separated from stem, to examine the surface ornamentation; stem and branch leaves are require with particular attention given to papillae, together with paraphyllia (branching pattern and degree and position of papillae), in a few cases seta ornamentation and the disposition of the capsule are required, particularly for Pelekium.
Touw (2001) has provided the most recent review of the family based on a reevaluation of morphological features of the Thuidiaceae. One of the more important conclusions is that Cyrto-hypnum, previously advanced by Buck and Crum (1990) should be subsumed under Pelekium, and Haplocladium retained in the Thuidiaceae (presently not followed here). The distinction between the Leskeacaeae and Thuidiacae is at best vague, and the latter family probably should be subsumed under the former. Pelekium (or Cyrto-hypnum) and Thuidium are in great need of critical study in the Neotropics; the status of a significant number of described species is unknown. Tentatively the keys and comments for Pelekium and Thuidium given below are adapted and modified in part from Buck (1998) and Touw (2001); in a few cases from Gier (1980).
La familia Thuidiaceae contiene aproximadamente 16 géneros y 150 o más especies ampliamente distribuidas en regiones templadas y tropicales. Tres o cuatro géneros y aproximadamente 30 especies han sido registradas en el Neotrópico. En Bolivia tres géneros y 14 especies son reconocidas; 2-3 taxa adicionales se encuentran en estado incierto. Para el estudio de las Thuidiaceae de Bolivia se debe prestar atención en el patrón de las ramificaciones, p.ej., ramas 1-, 2-, 3-pinnadas; los parafilos también son necesarios, es mejor observarlos tanto en el tallo, removiendo algunas hojas, así como separados del tallo con el fin de examinar la ornamentación de la superficie; en las hojas de tallos y ramas se debe observar cuidadosamente las papilas, junto con los parafilos (patrón de ramificación y el grado y disposición de las papilas), en pocos casos se requiere observar la ornamentación de las setas y la disposición de las cápsulas, especialmente en Pelekium.
Buck, W. R. 1998. Thuidiaceae: Pages 181-195, in Pleurocarpous mosses of the West Indies. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 82: 1-400.
Buck, W. R. & H. Crum. 1990. An evaluation of familial limits among the genera traditionally aligned with the Thuidiaceae and Leskeaceae. Contributions from the University of Michigan Herbarium 17: 55-69.
Gier, L. J. 1980. A preliminary study of the Thuidiaceae (Musci) of Latin America. Journal of Bryology 11: 253-309.
Schiavone, M.M. & G.M. Suárez. 2007. Las Thuidiaceae en el noroeste de Argentina. Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica 42: 211-230.
Touw, A. 2001. A review of the Thuidiaceae (Musci) and a realignment of taxa traditionally accommodated in Thuidium sensu amplo (Thuidium Schimp., Thuidiopsis (Broth.) M. Fleisch., and Pelekium Mitt.) including Aequatoriella gen. nov. and Indothuidium gen. nov. Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 90: 167-209.
Watanabe, R. & I. Kawai. 1975. Systematic studies on the conducting tissue of the gametophyte in Musci (5). What is expected of systematics regarding the inner structure of the stem in some species of Thuidiaceae. Science Reports of the Kamazawa University 20: 21-76.

Reference List     (Last Modified On 10/31/2017)


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Plants small to large, or robust, forming loose to somewhat dense mats or wefts, dull olive to dark green, yellowish-green to-brown, or golden. Stems 1-3 pinnately branched; central strand present; paraphyllia scattered or dense, simple or branched, mostly papillose; sparsely to densely tomentose. Leaves of stem and branches usually weakly to strongly dimorphic, stem leaves appressed to erect-spreading, ovate-, triangular-lanceolate or -subulate, apex short to long acuminate; margins plane distally, recurved or reflexed below, entire to serrulate- or crenulate-papillose; costae single, usually strong and projecting on back, subpercurrent to excurrent; median cells oval to isodiametric, uni- or pluripapillose on back or both surfaces, papillae short or long and often curved; branch leaves usually smaller, broadly to somewhat narrowly ovate or ovate-short lanceolate, apex acute to obtuse; costae often ending well below the apex. Autoicous or dioicous. Perigonia lateral; leaves ovate to short ovate-lanceolate. Perichaetia lateral; leaves differentiated, ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, margins ciliate or not. Setae elongate, smooth to papillose. Capsules erect to horizontal, urn cylindrical, straight or more often curved; opercula short to long rostrate, oblique; peristome double, exostome teeth 16, cross-striate below, distally papillose; endostome lightly papillose, basal membrane high, segments 16, keeled and perforate, cilia 2-3(4). Calyptrae cucullate, smooth and naked. Spores spherical, smooth to more commonly papillose.
Plantas pequeñas hasta grandes, o robustas, formando matas laxas hasta algo densas o tramas, verde olivas opacas hasta oscuras, verde-amarillentas a –parduzcas, o doradas. Tallos con ramas 1-3 pinnadas; banda central presente; parafilos esparcidos o densos, simples o ramificados, generalmente papilosos; escasamente a densamente tomentosos. Hojas de los tallos y ramas por lo general débilmente a marcadamente dimorfas, hojas de los tallos adpresas hasta erecto-extendidas, ovado-, triangular-lanceoladas o -subuladas, ápices corto- a largo-acuminados; márgenes distalmente planos, recurvados o reflexos abajo, enteros hasta serrulados- o crenulado-papilosos; costa simple, generalmente fuerte y proyectándose en el envés, subpercurrente a excurrente; células mediales ovales a isodiamétricas, uni- o pluripapilosas en el envés o en ambas superficies, papilas cortas o largas y a menudo curvadas; hojas de las ramas generalmente menores, ampliamente hasta algo angostamente ovadas o corto-ovadas lanceoladas, ápices agudos a obtusos; costa a menudo terminando muy debajo del ápice. Autoicas o dioicas. Perigonios laterales; hojas ovadas hasta ovado-lanceoladas cortas. Periquecios laterales; hojas diferenciadas, ovado-lanceoladas hasta lanceoladas, márgenes ciliados o no. Setas alargadas, lisas hasta papilosas. Cápsulas erectas a horizontales, urna cilíndrica, rectas o más a menudo curvadas; opérculo corto- a largo-rostrado, oblicuo; peristoma doble, exostoma con 16 dientes, estrías cruzadas en la porción inferior, distalmente papilosos; endostoma finamente papiloso, membrana basal alta, con 16 segmentos, carinados y perforados, 2-3(4) cilios. Caliptra cuculada, lisa y desnuda. Esporas esféricas, lisas a más comúnmente papilosas.

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1. Secondary stem and branch leaf apices ending in a single short or blunt point; plants irregular- or1-pinnately branched; paraphyllia smooth or papillose; setae smooth … 2.
1. Secondary stem and branch leaf apices bifid or notched; plants mostly 2-3 pinnately branched; paraphyllia typically papillose; setae smooth or papillose … 3.
2. Paraphyllia smooth; laminal cells unipapillose … Haplocladium (see Leskeaceae)
2. Paraphyllia papillose; laminal cells pluripapillose … Rauiella
3. Primary and secondary stem leaves generally similar to branch leaves; paraphyllia few, unbranched or weakly so; plants mostly small, seta smooth or more often papillose above or throughout; plants monoicous … Pelekium
3. Primary and secondary stem leaves generally differentiated; paraphyllia numerous, branched; plants medium sized to large; seta smooth; plants dioicous … Thuidium
1. Ápices de las hojas de tallos secundarios y ramas terminando en una punta simple corta u obtusa; plantas con ramas irregularmente o1-pinnadas; parafilos liso o papilosos; setas lisas … 2.
1. Ápices de las hojas de tallos secundarios y ramas bífidos o con una escotadura; plantas generalmente con ramas 2-3 pinnadas; parafilos típicamente papilosos; setas lisas o papilosas … 3.
2. Parafilos lisos; células de la lámina no conspicuamente abultadas, costa visible arriba, unipapilosas … Haplocladium (ver Leskeaceae)
2. Parafilos papilosos; células de la lámina conspicuamente abultadas y oscureciendo la costa arriba, unipapilosas o pluripapilosas … Rauiella
3. Hojas de los tallos primarios y secundarios generalmente similares a las hojas de las ramas; pocos parafilos, sin ramificar o débilmente ramificados; plantas generalmente pequeñas, setas lisas o más a menudo papilosas arriba o en toda la superficie; plantas monoicas … Pelekium
3. Hojas de los tallos primarios y secundarios generalmente diferenciadas; numerosos parafilos, ramificados; plantas medianas hasta grandes; setas lisas; plantas dioicas … Thuidium
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