虎尾藓科 hu wei xian ke
by Wang Mei-zhi
Plants usually stiff, green, grayish green to yellowish brown, or reddish brown to blackish, not glossy, in dense mats on rocks and tree trunks. Stems erect or ascending, irregularly branched, sometimes with flagelliform branches, rhizoids few at the base; central strand absent. Leaves imbricate when dry, erect-spreading or recurved when moist, usually ovate at the base, concave, shortly to long-acuminate at the apex, sometimes with hyaline, dentate or papillose leaf apices; margins often entire, sometimes slightly recurved; costae absent; upper leaf cells small, oval, oblong-oval, subquadrate, rhombic, narrowly oblong or irregular, mostly thick-walled, finely papillose or coarsely papillose; lower cells enlarged, elongate, papillose or gradually becoming smooth; basal juxtacostal cells rectangular or irregularly rhomboidal; alar cells somewhat differentiated, subquadrate, often orange-yellow. Autoicous, rarely dioicous. Perichaetia on lateral branches; perichaetial leaves elongate, sometimes ciliate at the margins. Setae short to elongate; capsules subglobose, ovoid or cylindrical; usually immersed, sometimes exserted, mostly symmetric, wrinkled, sometimes necks present; opercula conic, shortly rostrate; annuli not developed; peristome absent or only with exostome teeth. Calyptrae mitrate or cucullate, sometimes with a few hairs. Spores large, spherical, or irregular, 20–40 µm in diameter, papillose.