Plants small, medium-sized, or robust in pale green, green, golden, or reddish mats or tufts. Stems prostrate, ascending, or pendent, often complanate-foliate, sparsely or 1–2-pinnately branched, lightly pigmented when young, becoming reddish with age; stems in cross section with hyalodermis or sclerodermis, firm-walled cortical cells, central strand typically absent, occasionally rudimentary to weakly developed; branch primordia scattered over the stems or in leaf axils, typically with scale leaves, occasionally with foliose or subfoliose pseudoparaphyllia; axillary hairs 2(–3) cells long, hya-line or with the basal cell pigmented; rhizoids from clusters of initials abaxial to the leaf insertions, smooth, reddish brown, not or sparsely and irregularly branched. Leaves monomorphic or dimorphic, with often asymmetric lateral leaves larger than the symmetric dorsal and ventral leaves, lanceolate to broadly ovate or obovate; costae double, variable in length but usually long and ending above mid-leaf, occasionally absent; margins usually serrulate or serrate, occasionally dentate or entire, often with a border of elongate cells; cells isodiametric, hexagonal, elongate-rhomboidal, rectangular, or linear,smooth, papillose, or prorate; alar cells not differentiated. Gemmae often produced on stems, typ-ically from clusters of initials abaxial to the leaf insertions. Autoicous, synoicous, or dioicous. Game-tangia on short lateral branches on stems or branches. Setae long or short, smooth, papillose, or spinose. Capsules erect or inclined; exothecial cells often collenchymatous; stomata rudimentary, 2–6-celled, on neck; opercula conic-rostrate; annuli often massive, of 5–20 rows of yellowish, quadrate to hexag-onal cells separating from capsule along dehiscent zone at base, persistent on the operculum; peris-tome diplolepideous: hookeriaceous (exostome teeth narrowly triangular with broad median furrow, densely and closely striate below, coarsely papillose above, dorsal surface dark red, ventral surface hyaline to yellowish, lightly papillose; endostome as high as the exostome, yellowish, lightly papil-lose, basal membranes high, segments broad, strongly keeled, not or weakly perforate, cilia absent or rudimentary) or daltoniaceous (exostome teeth very narrowly triangular, median furrow absent, dorsal surface broad, whitish yellow, lightly papillose throughout, trabeculae thin, median line faint, ventral surface narrow, 1/3 or less the width of the dorsal surface, red or yellow, lightly papillose, deposition thick; endostome as high as the exostome, pale yellowish, papillose throughout, basal membranes high, segments broad, concave-keeled, not perforate, cilia absent or rudimentary). Calyptrae mitrate or campanulate-mitrate, often lobed or laciniate-fringed at base, often variously hairy, often papillose-roughened.