Plants small, medium-sized, or robust, green, dull green, yellow green, or golden red, at times jet black tinged. Primary stems at times creeping, irregularly pinnately branched, not stipitate; stems in cross section with enlarged epidermis or sclerodermis present, central strand present, rarely absent; paraphyllia absent; pseudoparaphyllia absent, subfoliose, or foliose, scale leaves present; rhizoids not or rarely branched, from clusters of initials abaxial to the leaf insertions. Secondary stems erect or pendent, irregularly pinnately branched, stem and branch tips often attenuate or stoloniferous. Leaves at times dimorphic or trimorphic, lanceolate, ovate-lanceolate, or ovate-triangular, narrowly elliptic, ovate-acuminate, broadly ovate to orbicular, closely or widely spaced, at times apices twisted when dry, varying from strongly plicate to smooth; margins at times serrulate to serrate or crenulate by pro-jecting papillae, rarely entire; upper marginal cells sometimes forming a more or less distinct border, sometimes decurrent, inserted in a straight or U-shaped line; costae single, usually ending 1/3–2/3 the leaf length, at times ending near the apex, at times ending in a small spine, rarely absent or shortly and inconspicuously double, in cross section cells usually homogeneous, thick-walled, rarely with guide cells and single layer of dorsal and ventral stereid cells; cells smooth, unipapillose, or pluripa-pillose, papillae seriate or scattered over the cell lumina; upper cells isodiametric, oval, rhombic, fusiform or linear; median cells linear to linear-fusiform or linear flexuose; basal cells across the in-sertion short-rectangular, more or less enlarged; alar cells weakly or strongly differentiated. Asexual reproduction sometimes by deciduous flagelliform branches or caducous leaves. Dioicous or auto-icous. Vaginulae at times densely hairy. Setae mostly elongate, smooth or papillose. Capsules im-mersed or exserted, erect to inclined, subglobular to ovoid, oblong, ovate-cylindrical, or cylindric-elliptic; stomata rarely absent; exothecial cells with thin or thick walls; opercula obliquely conic to rostrate; annuli rudimentary; peristome diplolepideous; exostome teeth on dorsal (outer) surface cross-striate below, or papillose to smooth throughout; endostome with high or low basal membranes, segments keeled or plane, at times perforate, cilia rudimentary or absent. Spores lightly papillose, uni-or bimodal. Calyptrae cucullate or mitrate, naked or hairy.