提灯藓科 ti deng xian ke
by Li Xing-jiang, Si He, and Zang Mu
Plants medium-sized to rather robust, bright green to dark green, in loose tufts or compact. Stems 2–10 cm long, erect or prostrate, with rhizoids at base; infertile branches mostly creeping; fertile branches erect; sometimes with flagelliform branches. Leaves usually distant, sometimes forming rosettes on the top of stems, flexuous or twisted when dry, spreading when moist, mostly ovate, elliptical or obovate, rarely ligulate or ovate-lanceolate, acute, bluntly acute, apiculate or shortly acuminate at apex; margins bordered or not bordered, single-toothed or double-toothed, rarely entire; narrowed and often decurrent at base; costae single, strong, sometimes branched, ending below the apex, percurrent, or shortly excurrent, dentate or smooth at the back; leaf cells pentagonal to hexagonal, rounded-quadrate to nearly rounded, rarely rhombic, mostly smooth, sometimes mammillose. Dioicous or autoicous. Perichaetia terminal. Setae solitary or clustered, mostly slender, straight; capsules mostly pendulous or horizontal to inclined, rarely erect, elongate-ovoid to cylindrical, rarely spherical; opercula conic at base, apiculate or obliquely rostrate; annuli usually present; peristome double; exostome teeth thick, lanceolate, bordered or not bordered, lamellose at back; endostome slenderly lanceolate, split, often as long as the teeth; basal membrane high; cilia 2–3, nodulose, sometimes endostome segments and cilia reduced. Calyptrae usually cucullate, smooth, rarely hairy. Spores spherical, mammillose or coarsely papillose.