Plants slender, medium-sized, or robust in loose or dense mats, at times pendent, or frondose. Pri-mary stems creeping, with erect to imbricate, distantly spaced leaves; secondary stems irregularly spaced, erect or pendent, stipitate or not stipitate, pinnately to bipinnately branched or not to occa-sionally branched, branches at times becoming flagellate, or transformed into stoloniferous stems; stems in cross section with sclerodermis, cortical cells enlarged, firm-walled, central strand absent; paraphyllia absent; pseudoparaphyllia filamentous; rhizoids red brown, roughened or papillose, not or irregularly branched, from clusters of initials at abaxial side of primary stem leaf insertions, and leaves on attenuate branch tips, and at base of stipes. Secondary stem leaves spirally ranked or not, erect-spreading, imbricate, wide-spreading, squarrose, or complanate, smooth, lightly undulate, rugose, or plicate, acute or acuminate, concave or plane, rounded to the insertion, cordate or auri-culate, variously decurrent; margins entire, serrulate, papillose-serrulate, or denticulate, plane or revolute; costae double or single, rarely absent; cells linear to linear-flexuose, variously porose, smooth, pro, uni- or pluripapillose, firm-walled, cells across the insertion yellowish, porose; alar cells weakly or strongly developed. Asexual reproduction by hyaline, smooth, uniseriate, septate gemmae arising from large, circular clusters of initials in leaf axils or deciduous branch leaves. Dioicous (rarely autoicous). Setae short or long, smooth, lightly papillose, or scabrose. Capsules immersed or exserted, erect, symmetric, cylindric, short-cylindric, ovoid, or spherical; stomata absent; opercula conic-rostate; annuli rudimentary; peristome diplolepideous, exostome irregularly developed, weakly trabeculate, often with a well-developed prostome; endostome rudimentary or absent. Calyptra cu-cullate or mitrate, smooth or sparsely hairy.