卷柏藓科 juan bai xian ke
by Wang Mei-zhi
Plants slender to rather large, green, yellowish green, dark green or brown, in large, dense mats. Stems and branches often rigid, irregularly pinnately or irregularly branched, with dense, brownish rhizoids on ventral surface; in stem cross section, a central strand often present. Leaves often twisted or curled, sometimes more or less plane when dry, erect-spreading when moist; dorsal and ventral leaves dimorphic; ventral leaves on both sides of stems and branches larger; dorsal leaves smaller, with two rows of leaves alternately arranged in the middle of stems, seeming in one row; ventral leaves ovate or oblong-ovate, asymmetric; margins entire or serrulate above, sometimes borders differentiated; costae single, somewhat strong, percurrent, often long excurrent, ending in awns; dorsal leaves more or less symmetric, oblong-triangular, ovate-lanceolate or cordate-lanceolate; margins entire or serrulate; costae single, strong, ending in long awns; leaf cells oval, rounded-hexagonal, subquadrate, or shortly rectangular, smooth or unipapillose; basal cells elongate and enlarged. Dioicous or autoicous. Perichaetial leaves sheathing at the base. Setae elongate, reddish brown, smooth; capsules oblong-ovoid to cylindrical, usually asymmetric, erect, inclined to horizontal, furrowed when dry; neck short; opercula conic, long-rostrate; annuli revolute, deciduous; stomata superficial; peristome double; exostome teeth narrowly lanceolate, densely papillose; endostome segments linear-lanceolate, often hyaline, papillose, perforate; basal membrane high; cilia well developed, rudimentary or absent. Calyptrae cucullate or mitrate, naked or sparsely hairy. Spores spherical, densely papillose.