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Macromitriaceae S.P. Churchill Search in NYBG Virtual HerbariumSearch in Flora do Brasil 2020Search in Reflora - Virtual HerbariumSearch in Living Collections Decrease font Increase font Restore font

Published In: Biblioteca José Jerónimo Triana 12: 588. 1995. (Bibliot. José Jerónimo Triana) Name publication detail

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 10/7/2009)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 10/8/2017)
Plant Category: Mosses
General Reference:
Tropicos Lookup Reference:

Notes     (Last Modified On 10/8/2017)
The Macromitriaceae contain seven genera and about 100 species in the Neotropics. Five genera and about 60 species are recorded for the tropical Andes. Many reports and described species for the genera Macromitrium and Schlotheimia request study.
Macromitriaceae contiene siete géneros y ca. 100 especies en el Neotrópico. En Andes Tropicales hay cinco géneros y cerca 60 especies. Existen varios reportes y descripciones de especies de los géneros Macromitrium y Schlotheimia que requieren estudios.
There are two cases within a cladistic framework in which Macromitriaceae can be subsumed within the Orthotrichaceae - 1) Macromitriaceae is derived within the clade of Orthotrichaceae, thus Orthotrichaceae in that sense is paraphyletic; 2) Macromitriaceae is the sister group of Orthotrichaceae, thus one can recognize both as subfamilies, accepting the oldest name for the family - Orthotrichaceae. There is preliminary data to suggest that Macromitriaceae and Orthotrichaceae are sister taxa (Goffinet et al., 1998); previously De Luna (1995) suggested that the Orthotrichaceae is paraphyletic, that several smaller families might be derived within Orthotrichaceae, i.e., Rhachitheciaceae (at least some taxa recognized at the level of genus), and more closely related than to Macromitriaceae. In this treatment Macromitriaceae and Orthotrichaceae are considered sister taxa, recognized at the family level. The recognition of taxonomic diversity, employing the category “family” is deemed useful, reflecting not only phyletic divergence but also a historical component. The family Macromitriaceae is primarily a Gondwanaland taxon, where as Orthotrichaceae is largely Laurasian in origin. It is likely that the Zygodontaceae should likely be recognized also. In the Neotropics Macromitriaceae contains seven genera and about 100 species. The treatments of the genera (under Orthotrichaceae) by Allen (2002) and Vitt (1994) are important references, providing descriptions and excellent illustrations of some of the species present in the tropical Andes.
Study guide. Many species can be identified by leaves alone; however for Macromitrium care should be taken to remove sufficient number of leaves with intact bases so it can be determined if the basal margin is toothed or not. Important sporophytic features to observe include the seta (whether smooth or papillose), and capsules (furrowed or not). A cross-section, just above midleaf, is useful for examining the ornamentation of laminal cells.
Muchas especies bolivianas pueden ser identificadas sólo por las hojas; sin embargo, en Macromitrium se debe tener cuidado para remover el suficiente número de hojas con las bases intactas y así determinar si el margen basal es dentado o no. Algunas características importantes que se pueden observar en el esporofito son la seta (lisa o papilosa) y la cápsula (acanalada o lisa).


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Plants small to more commonly medium sized or large and robust, forming tufts or mats. Stems creeping with branches erect or rarely subpendent, few to many branched; central strand absent; pseudoparaphyllia and paraphyllia absent; often densely tomentose, particularly stems and lower secondary stems. Leaves often crispate or flexuose when dry, linear- to oblong-lanceolate or oblong-lingulate, smooth to occasionally rugose or undulate, often plicate usually on one side, apex acute to acuminate, rarely obtuse, base occasionally decurrent; margins plane to reflexed or recurved, entire to serrulate or serrate, elimbate or limbate with marginal border of linear cells usually below midleaf; costa single, usually strong, subpercurrent to long excurrent; laminal cells thick-walled, upper and median cells isodiametric to elongate, smooth, mammillose or papillose; basal cells elongate or similar to upper cells, occasionally tuberculate (strongly mammillose with thick walls), occasionally sinuose or porose; alar region rarely differentiated or only marginal cells at base. Autoicous (including pseudoautoicous) or dioicous. Perichaetia terminal on erect branches, leaves often differentiated. Setae short to more commonly elongate, often twisted, smooth or papillose. Capsules exserted, mostly erect, urn ovoid or ovoid-cylindrical, ± symmetric, smooth or ribbed or furrowed, neck usually distinct, exothecial cells usually thick-walled, stomata superficial or immersed; annulus often persistent; operculum, short to long rostrate; peristome, double, single or variously reduced to absent, exostome teeth 16 or in 8 pairs, smooth to more often papillose; endostome often reduced, smooth or papillose. Calyptrae mitrate or campanulate, base usually lobed, plicate or smooth, naked or hairy. Spores spherical, usually papillose.
Plantas pequeñas a más comúnmente medianas o grandes y robustas, formando manojos o matas. Tallos reptantes con ramas erectas o rara vez subpendientes, poco hasta muy ramificados; cordón central ausente; pseudoparáfilos y paráfilos ausentes; a menudo densamente tomentosos, particularmente en tallos y tallos secundarios inferiores. Hojas a menudo crispas o flexuosas en seco, lineales- hasta oblongo-lanceoladas u oblongo-liguladas, lisas hasta ocasionalmente rugosas o unduladas, a menudo plegadas generalmente sobre un lado, ápices agudos hasta acuminados, rara vez obtusos, base ocasionalmente decurrente; márgenes planos hasta reflexos o recurvados, enteros hasta serrulados o serrados, elimbados o limbados con borde de células lineales generalmente encima de media hoja; costa simple, generalmente fuerte, subpercurrente hasta largo excurrente; células de la lámina con paredes gruesas, células superiores y medias isodiamétricas hasta alargadas, lisas, mamilosas o papilosas; células basales alargadas o similares a las células superiores, ocasionalmente tuberculadas (marcadamente mamilosas con paredes gruesas), ocasionalmente sinuosas o porosas; región alar rara vez diferenciada o sólo células marginales en la base. Autoicas (incluyendo pseudoautoica) o dioica. Periquecios terminales sobre ramas erectas, hojas a menudo diferenciadas. Setas cortas hasta más comúnmente alargadas, a menudo torcidas, lisas o papilosas. Cápsulas excertas, generalmente erectas, urna ovoide u ovoide-cilíndrica, ± simétricas, lisas, acostilladas o acanaladas, cuello generalmente conspicuo, células exoteciales generalmente con paredes gruesas, estomas superficiales o inmersos; anillo a menudo persistente; opérculo, corto- hasta largo-rostrado; peristoma, doble, simple o diversamente reducido hasta ausente, exostoma con 16 dientes o en 8 pares, lisos hasta más a menudo papilosos; endostoma a menudo reducido, liso o papiloso. Caliptra mitrada o campanulada, base generalmente lobada, plegada o lisa, desnuda o pelosa. Esporas esféricas, generalmente papilosas.

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1. Primary stems creeping with secondary branches short or long erect … 2.
1. Primary stems erect … see Orthotrichaceae
2. Basal leaf cells short and rounded, somewhat larger than upper cells … 3.
2. Basal leaf-cells much elongate, usually linear-rectangular … 5.
3. Leaves bordered 1/4-4/5 lamina length along margin … Groutiella
3. Leaves not bordered at base … 4.
4. Laminal cells strongly unipapillose, papillae high conic; cells of leaf decurrency large and inflated; leaf apices often fragile and deciduous … Cardotiella
4. Laminal cells smooth to bulging or weakly papillose; cells of leaf decurrency not inflated; leaf apices neither fragile or deciduous … Macrocoma
5. Calyptra mitrate, often plicate, deeply lobed, smooth or hairy; peristome lacking, single or double, teeth when present often truncate; basal laminal cells often tuberculate, marginal cells at base entire or toothed (projecting cells angled downward) … Macromitrium
5. Calyptra campanulate, not plicate; peristome double, teeth long-linear with a median line; basal laminal cells smooth, marginal cells at base entire … Schlotheimia
1. Tallos primarios reptantes con ramas secundarias erectas cortas o largas … 2.
1. Tallos primarios erectos … ver Orthotrichaceae
2. Células basales de las hojas cortas y redondeadas, algo mayores a las células superiores … 3.
2. Células basales de las hojas muy alargadas, generalmente lineo-rectangulares … 5.
3. Hojas bordeadas en 1/4-4/5 de la longitud de la lámina a lo largo del margen … Groutiella
3. Hojas no bordeadas en la base … 4.
4. Células de la lámina marcadamente unipapilosas, papilas altas cónicas; células de las decurrencias de la hoja grandes e infladas; ápices de las hojas hasta menudo frágiles y deciduos … Cardotiella
4. Células de la lámina lisas hasta abultadas o débilmente papilosas; células de las decurrencias de la hoja no infladas; ápices de las hojas no frágiles o deciduos … Macrocoma
5. Caliptra mitrada, a menudo plegada, profundamente lobada, lisa o pelosa; peristoma ausente, simple o doble, dientes cuando presentes a menudo truncados; células basales de la lámina a menudo tuberculadas, células del borde enteras o dentadas en la base (células con los ángulos proyectándose hacia abajo … Macromitrium
5. Caliptra campanulada, no plegada; peristoma doble, dientes largo-lineales con una línea media; células basales de la lámina lisas, células del borde enteras en la base … Schlotheimia
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