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Published In: Bryologia Europaea 3: 215 (fasc. 23–24. Monogr. 5). 1844. (Bryol. Eur.) Name publication detail

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 2/18/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project data     (Last Modified On 2/18/2011)

Tetraplodon mnioides is distinguished from all other Central American species of Splachnaceae by its lanceolate leaves with filiform apices and entire margins. The peristome of T. mnioides is essentially identical to that of Tayloria scabriseta. It consists of 8 pairs of teeth that often are split above and sometimes entirely divided into 16 teeth. They are reflexed when dry and peristomial deposition is almost entirely on the dorsal (outside) surface. The ventral (inner) surface is hyaline and so thin-walled that it is often difficult to discern the two columns of cell remnants. Tayloria scabriseta differs from Tetraplodon mnioides in having rounded obtuse leaves, lower urn exothecial cells that are oblate, and round-pored stomata. Other distinctive features of T. mnioides are its setae with mammillose cells and dark red to reddish black capsules that have longitudinally wrinkled and slightly inflated hypophyses. Koponen (1983) considered the widespread T. mnioides a species complex whose tropical and Southern Hemispheric members were in need of revision.

Illustrations: Grout (1906, Pl. 40); Frisvoll (1978, Fig. 1 j, Fig. 5 a, c, Fig. 7 c); Crum and Anderson (1981, Fig. 224); Noguchi (1988, Fig. 180). Figure 122.
Habitat: In Chusquea and mixed shrub paramo; terrestrial or on well humified tapir dung; 2850–3350 m.
Distribution in Central America: COSTA RICA. Cartago: Webster 10052 (MO); Limón: Davidse & Herrera 29312 (MO); Puntarenas: Davidse 26080 (MO); San José: Crosby 3887 (MO). PANAMA. Bocas del Toro: Dauphin 1547 (CR, MO).
World Range: Subarctic America, Western and Eastern Canada, Northwestern, North-Central, and Northeastern U.S.A.; Central America; Western, Northern, and Southern South America; Northern, Middle, East, Southwestern, and Southeastern Europe; Siberia, Russian Far East, Middle Asia, Mongolia, China, Eastern Asia; West-Central and East Tropical Africa; Indian Subcontinent, Malesia.


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Tetraplodon mnioides (Hedw.) Bruch & Schimp. in B.S.G., Bryol. Eur. 3: 215 (fasc. 23–24). 1844. Splachnum mnioides Hedw., Sp. Musc. Frond. 51. 1801. Protologue: Czechoslovakia and Austria. Alpestribus locis provenit, (in Sudetibus, Krug, in Austria, Host.)

Plants densely caespitose, yellowish green above, brownish below. Stems erect, 30–45 mm high, branched at base, central strand present, tomentose; rhizoids red-brown or brown, smooth, dimorphic; axillary hairs of 1–2 red basal cells and a hyaline, elongate terminal cell. Leaves erect and somewhat concave when moist, clasping below, variously twisted, folded and undulate when dry, oblong-¬obovate, abruptly subulate to a  filiform apex; margins erect or somewhat inrolled in the upper ¾ of the leaf, plane below, entire; costa single, yellowish green, percurrent, narrow above; upper cells rhombic, 47–70 x18–23 μm, thin-¬walled, lower leaf cells rectangular, 91–150 x 25–34 μm, thin-walled, upper marginal cells more or less rectangular. Autoicous. Setae single, 3–7 mm long, erect or slightly curved, bright red when young, becoming dark brownish red in age, cells mammillose. Capsules 2.5–4.2 mm long, erect or suberect, red when young becoming dark reddish brown in age, subcylindric, contracted slightly below the mouth, neck comprising _ of the capsule length, irregularly longitudinally wrinkled, not wider than the urn, smoothly tapered to the seta; exothecial cells below the mouth oblate in 10–16 rows, lower urn exothecial cells rectangular, 40–81 x12–31 μm, neck cells rectangular, 37–75 x 18–44 μm; stomata in neck, phaneroporic, long-pored; opercula convex-discoid, blackish red; peristome of  8 exostome teeth, sometimes splitting into 16 with age, red or reddish brown, deeply inserted within the capsule, strongly reflexed when dry, papillose, outer surface with 4 columns of cell remnants, inner surface hyaline, thin, with 2 columns of cell remnants. Spores subspherical, 10–14 μm, tan in mass, smooth. Calyptra conic, 2.5–3 mm long, reddish to golden and somewhat verrucose above, pale golden and smooth below, slit on one side.



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