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Published In: Die Laubmoose Deutschlands, Oesterreichs und der Schweiz 1: 592. 1888. (Laubm. Deutschl.) Name publication detail

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The leaves of T. anomala have denticulate to serrate margins that are tubulose when dry and weakly incurved when wet. The presence of bistratose leaves that have the ventral cell layer  bulging-mammillose but the dorsal cell layer plane will separate this species from all others in Central America except Ptychomitrium standleyi. Ptychomitrium standleyi differs from T. anomala in having entire leaf margins, ventral and dorsal laminal cell layers not offset, a mitrate calyptra, narrowly rostrate operculum, ovoid to oblong capsules and 16 peristome teeth.

The peristome teeth in Central American material of T. anomala are erect to very weakly

twisted. These teeth are very different from the strongly twisted peristome teeth of  Japanese collections figured by Noguchi (1988).

Illustrations: Brotherus (1902, Fig. 396 C); Brotherus (1924, Fig. 216 C); Grout (1938, Pl. 80 A, Pl.83 B); Bartram (1949, Fig. 46 A–D); Abramova and Abramov (1983, Pl. 15 1–7); Noguchi (1988, Fig. 115 A); Zander (1993, Pl. 1 1–9); Sharp et al. (1994, Fig. 182). Figure 78.
Habitat: On damp bank and roots of Quercus; 1800–3000 m.
Distribution in Central America: GUATEMALA. Sacatepéquez: Standley 65266 (F); San Marcos: Sharp 2625 (MO, TENN); EL SALVADOR. San Salvador: Winkler 184 (TUB).
World Range: South-Central, and Southwestern U.S.A.; Mexico; Central America; Caribbean; Southwestern, Southeastern, and East Europe; Siberia, Russian Far East, Middle Asia, Mongolia, China, Eastern Asia, Western Asia, Arabian Peninsula; East Tropical Africa; Indian Subcontinent, Indo-China, Malesia.


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Timmiella anomala (Bruch & Schimp.) Limpr., Laubm. Deutschl. 1: 592. 1888.

Barbula anomala Bruch & Schimp., Bryol. Eur. Fasc. 13–15: 45. 1842. Protologue: France. In olivetis prope Varennam ad lacum comensem et in ipsius lacus ripis fruticibus umbratis, praeprimis versus Bellano leg. W. P. Schimp cum amico Mühlenbeck, ineunte Julio 1840.

Trichostomum subanomalum Besch., Mém. Soc. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg 16: 177. 1872. Timmiella subanomala (Besch.) Broth., Nat. Pflanzenfam. 1(3): 396. 1902. Protologue: Mexico. In Monte Orizabensi (Galeotti n° 6973; Mejico (Bourg. n° 1357 pro parte). 

Plants dull yellow-green to green, in dense or loose tufts to 15 mm high. Stems red, erect,  sparsely and irregularly branched, rosulate-foliate; hyalodermis present, central strand well-developed; rhizoids moderately developed below, reddish brown, smooth. Lower leaves reduced, erect-appressed below, upper leaves 4–5 mm long, erect at base, incurved, spirally twisted and contorted, tubular above when dry, erect-spreading when wet, lanceolate; apices acute; margins denticulate above, serrulate to serrate below, plane below and variously incurved above; costa percurrent to short excurrent, guide cells and two stereid bands well-developed, ventral surface layer of short, bulging-mammillose cells; upper cells rounded-quadrate, firm-walled, bistratose except at margins, bulging-mammillose ventrally, plane dorsally, 7.5–10 x 7.5 μm, basal interior cells oblong, thin-walled, bulging, hyaline, smooth, to 87.5 x 17.5 μm, basal marginal cells narrowly rectangular to elongate, firm and straight-walled, smooth. Autoicous. Perigonia lateral, perichaetia terminal, perichaetial leaves weakly differentiated. Setae 15–25 mm long, red, smooth, spirally twisted. Capsules narrowly cylindrical, 4–4.5 mm long; stomata at base; opercula high-conic, 1 mm long; annuli large, compound, deciduous; peristome teeth divided nearly to the base into 32 slender filaments, red, densely spiculose, 575–600 μm long, straight or very weakly twisted clockwise. Spores 10–12.5 μm, smooth to somewhat roughened. Calyptrae 3.5 mm long.



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