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Published In: Bryologia Universa 2: 22. 1827. (Bryol. Univ.) Name publication detail

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 3/7/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
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Philonotis uncinata is an extremely variable species characterized by its dioicous condition, gemmiform perigonia, papillae projecting from the upper ends of the leaf cells, and a costa that can be subpercurrent, percurrent or shortly excurrent. It is a small to medium-sized species, with short, lax leaf cells and basal cells near the costa commonly somewhat enlarged. It has recurved leaf margins that are usually doubly serrate by either blunt or sharp teeth. The species is  extremely variable in terms of costal length, leaf apex shape and leaf areolation. There are three distinctive morphologies commonly associated with P. uncinata and unless the complex is studied in detail (see Florschütz 1964, Zales 1973, Griffin 1994) it is difficult to accept them as representing a single species. Plants with more or less obtuse leaves, subpercurrent costae, blunt marginal leaf serrations, and large, lax-walled leaf cells represent the gracillima-expression. Plants with acute leaves, percurrent costae, blunt or sharp marginal leaf serrations and lax-walled leaf cells represent the glaucescens-expression. Plants with acute leaves, short-excurrent costae, sharp marginal leaf serrations and firm-walled leaf cells represent the uncinata-expression. Philonotis uncinata keys out near P. elongata, but it is distinguished from that species by its smaller size, blunter marginal leaf serrations, and short, erect, unbranched stems.  Philonotis uncinata is more easily confused with P. hastata through its gracillima-expression or P. sphaericarpa through its uncinata-expression. The gracillima-expression of P. uncinata differs from P. hastata in having narrower, firmer-walled leaf cells and more strongly papillose leaf cells, while the uncinata-expression of P. uncinata differs from P. sphaericarpa in its smaller sized and in having a smooth, excurrent costa rather than a toothed one.

Although it is not yet known from Central America, P. marchica(Hedw.) Brid. has been found in Mexico. This species resembles the uncinata-expression of P. uncinata, it differs from it in having mostly plane leaf margins with singly serrate teeth.

Illustrations: Schwaegrichen (1816, Pl. 57, as Bartramia scabrida); Flowers (1935, Pl. 69 N, as P. glaucescens, Pl. 67 A, as P. gracillima, Pl. 69 M); Bartram (1949, Fig. 89 D–G, as P. glaucescens, Fig. 89 H–I, as P. gracillima, Fig. 90 D–E); Breen (1963, Pl. 58 1–6, 11, as P. glaucescens, Pl. 58 7–10, as P. gracillima, Pl. 59 7–10); Florschütz (1964, Fig. 79); Zales (1973, Figs. 46, 49, as P. glaucescens); Crum and Anderson (1981, Fig. 307 A–D, Fig. 307 E–H, as P. glaucescens, Fig. 308 A–C, as P. gracillima); Reese (184, Fig. 39 A–B, as P. glaucescens); Sharp et al. (1994, Fig. 425); Allen (1999a, Fig. 5). Fig. 207.
Habitat: On moist or dry clay, sandy soil, or soil banks, rocks in and along rivers, wet masonry, and on logs; 10–2700 m.
Distribution in Central America: BELIZE. Belize: Allen 19091 (MO); Cayo: Allen 18417 (BRH, MO); Toledo: Davidse & Brant 32313 (BRH, MO). GUATEMALA. Alta Verapaz: Standley 71748 (F); Baja Verapaz: Hermann 26346a (F, NY); Chimaltenango: Standley 57909 (F); Huehuetenango: Steyermark 51170 (F, MO, NY); Izabal: Steyermark 41782 (F, NY); Jalapa: Steyermark 32916 (F); Jutiapa: Standley 75584 (F); Quezaltenango: Spellman et al. B111a (MO); Quiché: Sharp 2363 (MO); Retalhuleu: Standley 87216 (F); Sacatepéquez: Standley 63285 (F); San Marcos: Steyermark 35710 (F); Santa Rosa: Standley 77781 (F); Zacapa: Steyermark 29413a (F). EL SALVADOR. La Libertad: Sidwell et al. 485 (BM, MO). HONDURAS. Atlántida: Allen 17644 (MO, TEFH); Choluteca: Davidse et al. 35065 (MO, TEFH); Comayagua: Allen 13712 (MO, TEFH); Copán: Allen 17689 (MO, TEFH); Cortés: Allen 17175 (MO, TEFH); El Paraíso: Rodriguez 1871 (F); Francisco Morazán: Olson 83-11 (MO, TEFH); Lempira: Allen 11148 (MO, TEFH); Ocotepeque: Standley 27906 (F); Olancho: Allen 12482 (MO, TEFH); Yoro: Allen 13490 (MO, TEFH). NICARAGUA. Chinandega: Standley 11192 (F); Chontales: Standley 8888 (F); Estelí: Stevens 15827A (MO); Granada: Miller et al. 1426 (MO); Jinotega: Standley 9628 (F); Madriz: Stevens et al. 17699 (MO); Matagalpa: Stevens 6022 (MO, NIC); Nueva Segovia: Stevens 3323 (MO). COSTA RICA. Alajuela: Crosby 3763 (CR, MO); Cartago: Crosby & Crosby 5756 (CR, MO); Guanacaste: Crosby 3751 (CR, MO); Heredia: Crosby & Crosby 6490 (MO); Limón: Daley 38 (MO); Puntarenas: Dauphin 1470 (CR, MO), Cocos Island: Gómez 6572A (MO); San José: Standley & Valerio 51876 (US). PANAMA. Bocas del Toro: Allen 5262 (MO, PMA); Canal Area: Willis (F, MO, US); Chiriquí: Allen 5440 (MO, PMA); Coclé: Hunter & Allen 428 (MO, PMA); Darién: Allen 8994 (MO, NY, PMA); Panamá: Richards 2038 (F), Perlas Archipelago, San José Island, Johnson (NY); San Blas: D’Arcy 1020 (MO, PMA); Veraguas: Vosburgh & Vosburgh (NY).
World Range: North-Central, Southeastern U.S.A.; Mexico; Central America; Caribbean, Northern and Western South America, Brazil.


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Philonotis uncinata (Schwaegr.) Brid., Bryol. Univ. 2: 22. 1827.

Bartramia uncinata Schwaegr., Sp. Musc. Frond. Suppl. 1(2): 60. 1816. Protologue: Guadeloupe and Martinique. In monte sulphurifero Guadalupae et in Martinica lectam et curiose observatam dedit Richard

 Philonotis muhlenbergii var. tenella Brid., Bryol. Univ. 2: 23. 1827. Bartramia tenella (Brid.) C. Müll., Syn. Musc. Frond. 1: 481. 1849. Philonotis tenella (Brid.) Jaeg., Ber. Thätigk. St. Gallischen Naturwiss. Ges. 1873-1847: 79. 1875. Protologue: Hispaniola. Hispaniolà, ubi Bertero legit, caespitose habitat. Balbis communicavit.

Bartramia glaucescens Hornsch. in Mart., Fl. Brasil. 1(2): 40. 1840.  Philonotis glaucescens (Hornsch.) Broth., Bih. Kongl. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. 21, 3(3): 27. 1897. Philonotis uncinata var. glaucescens (Hornsch.) Florsch., Fl. Suriname 6(1): 205. 1964. Protologue: Brazil. In truncis vetustis silvarum prope Sebastianopolin, Octobri: Beyrich.

Philonotis gracillima Ångstr., Öfvers. Förh. Kongl. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. 33(4): 17. 1876. Philonotis uncinata var. gracillima (Ångstr.) Florsch., Fl. Suriname 6(1): 205. 1964. Protologue. Brazil. [Caldas], Regnell sub N:o 38 misit.

Philonotis nanodendra Ren, & Card., Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belgique 31(1): 160. 1892. Protologue: Costa Rica. Sur un talus humide, dans le voisinage de la station du chemin der fer, à San José ([Pittier] no 5554). Type: Costa Rica. San José, Tonduz, 1889. Pl. Cost. no 5554 (NY).

Philonotis scobinifolia C. Müll., Bull. Herb. Boissier 5: 188. 1897. Protologue. Guatemala. Mazatenango. Coll. [Bernoulli & Cario] No 130; Alta Vera Paz, Pansamalá: v Türckheim, Decembri 1887 fertilis.

Plants small to medium-sized, in loose or dense, glaucous green, green, or yellowish green tufts, to 40 mm high. Stems red; rhizoids at base, reddish brown, major rhizoids lightly papillose, minor rhizoids smooth to lightly roughened. Leaves 0.5–2.5 mm long, closely or distantly spaced, imbricate, erect or erect-spreading when wet or dry, straight or secund, oblong-lanceolate to triangular lanceolate; apices acuminate, acute or obtuse; margins narrowly revolute, bluntly or sharply serrate by two rows (rarely one row) of teeth; costae subpercurrent to short-excurrent; cells papillose, papillae at upper cell ends, upper cells subquadrate, short- or long-rectangular, lax (sublinear and firm-walled in uncinata-expression), 12–37 x 5–10 μm, basal cells near costa enlarged, rectangular, to 50 x 20 μm, alar cells quadrate. Dioicous. Perigonia gemmiform. Setae 10–30 mm long, red. Capsules 1–2 mm long, brown, ovoid to subglobose, inclined to pendent, exothecial cells firm-walled; opercula 0.5 mm long, conic‑mammillate; peristome double, exostome teeth red, narrowly triangular, outer surface finely papillose below, coarsely papillose near tips, inner surface smooth, trabeculae thick, endostome nearly as long as the exostome, yellowish, finely papillose granulose below, segments split along the median line and each half diverging toward the cilia, cilia 2–3, well-developed. Spores reniform, 20–25 μm, papillose.



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