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Published In: Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 12: 175. 1869. (J. Linn. Soc., Bot.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library
 

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Discussion: Anoectangium aestivum has a number of distinctive features associated with its stems (sclerodermis and central strand present), leaves (sharply keeled or grooved along the costa, plane margins, and non-porose leaf cells), and costae (narrow, with a single, dorsal stereid band, and 2–3 ventrally exposed guide cells). The species, however, shows considerable phenotypic plasticity. Although most collections of A. aestivum have evenly foliate stems, collections with comal-tufted stems are encountered. Crum & Anderson (1981) considered A. euchloron distinct from A. aestivum on the basis of its shorter plants and blunter, abruptly apiculate leaves. Both expressions of this taxon are present in Central America and individual collections do not seem to intergrade. The most extreme expression of the species is seen in an odd Mexican collection (Crum 1300, FH, TENN) that has leaves with a rough, lumpy appearance due to the scattered presence of bi- and tristratose groups of cells that are crowned by massive, fused papillae. This expression has also been reported (Zander 1993) from South Africa (Magill 5532, MO, PRE). Although Zander (1976) reported numerous intergrading expressions between this collection and the normal unistratose form, the Mexican collection further differs from A. aestivum in having a remarkably variable costal cross-section. Costal cross-sections in this Mexican collection can be typical in form (i.e., with guide cells superficially exposed and a single dorsal stereid band), have enlarged ventral epidermal cells and a single dorsal stereid band, or have enlarged ventral epidermal cells and two stereid bands. In Central America A. aestivum can be confused with Gymnostomum aeruginosum, Hymenostylium recurvirostrum, Molendoa sendtneriana, and Tuerckheimia guatemalensis. Hymenostylium recurvirostrum differs from A. aestivum in having a weakly developed stem hyalodermis and central strand, consistently recurved leaf margins, often porose leaf cells, and two costal stereid bands. Molendoa sendtneriana can be separated from A. aestivum by its leaves that are broadly grooved to flat above, have massive leaf papillae, and two costal stereid bands. Plants of Gymnostomum aeruginosum are distinguished by their nearly flat leaves and broadly rounded leaf apices. Tuerckheimia guatemalensis differs from A. aestivum in having concave to plane leaves with a broad ventral channel and massive leaf papillae that are centered over the cell lumina.
Illustrations: Bartram (1949, Fig. 38 A–D as A. euchloron, E–G as A. compactum); Zander (1977, Figs. 2–16); Crum and Anderson (1981, Fig. 119); Norris and Koponen (1989, Fig. 4 l–p); Zander (1993, Pl. 38 10–13); Sharp et al. (1994, Fig. 191). Figure 7.
Habitat: On vertical surfaces of calcareous boulders and cliffs, on damp, shaded roadside banks, occasionally on rotting logs; 300–3300 m.
Distribution in Central America: GUATEMALA. Baja Verapaz: Sharp 5150 (MO); Chimaltenango: Standley 57918 (F, FH); El Progreso: Steyermark 29548 (MO); Guatemala: Standley 59689 (F, FH); Huehuetenango: Standley 82434 (F, FH); Jalapa: Steyermark 32190 (F, FH); Quezaltenango: Steyermark 33619 (F, FH); Quiché: Sharp 2435 (FH); Retalhuleu: Standley 88158 (F, FH); Sacatepéquez: Croat 42043 (MO, NY); San Marcos: Croat 40981 (MO); Santa Rosa: Standley 78361 (F, FH); Sololá: Croat 41074 (MO); Suchitepéquez: Steyermark 46831a (NY); Zacapa: Steyermark 42459 (F, FH). EL SALVADOR. Ahuachapán: Brinson 1001 (MO); La Libertad: Monro et al. 2327 (BM, MO); San Salvador: Monro et al. 2255 (BM, MO). HONDURAS. Atlántida: Allen 17453 (MO, TEFH); Comayagua: Allen 11752 (MO, TEFH); Francisco Morazán: Olson 84-50 (MO); Lempira: Allen 11219 (MO, TEFH); Ocotepeque: Allen 14415 (MO, TEFH); Olancho: Allen 12493 (MO); Yoro: Allen 13657 (MO, TEFH). NICARAGUA. Jinotega: Stevens & Grijalva 15357 (MO); Managua: Garnier 718 (FH). COSTA RICA. Alajuela: Brenes 19357 (NY); Cartago: Crosby & Crosby 8631 (MO); Guanacaste: Valerio 101 (FH); Heredia: Crosby & Crosby 6464 (MO); Limón: Davidse et al. 26051 (CR, MO); Puntarenas: Gentry & Burger 2757B (MO); San José: Davidse 24957 (MO). PANAMA. Chiriquí: Mori & Kallunki 5753 (MO); Darién: Allen 8706 (MO).
World Range: Subarctic America, Western Canada, Northwestern, Northeastern, Southwestern and Southeastern U.S.A.; Mexico; Central America; Caribbean, Western, Northern and Southern South America, Brazil; Northern, Middle, East, Southwestern, and Southeastern Europe; Caucasus, Mongolia, China, Eastern Asia, Western Asia; Macaronesia, West, Northeast, West-Central, and East Tropical Africa; Indian Subcontinent, Malesia; Australia, New Zealand; North-Central and South-Central Pacific.

 

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Anoectangium aestivum (Hedw.) Mitt., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 12: 175. 1869.

Gymnostomum aestivum Hedw., Sp. Musc. Frond. 32. 1801. Protologue: England, Switzerland, and Germany. Locis palustribus Angliae, Helvetiae, Lipsiae in argillaefodina inventum habet Schreber.

Gymnostomum euchloron Schwaegr., Sp. Musc. Frond. Suppl. 2(2): 83. 1827. Anoectangium euchloron (Schwaegr.) Mitt., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 12: 176. 1869. Protologue: Martinique. In insula Martinicense Americae lectum dedit cl. Sieber.

Anoectangium compactum Schwaegr., Sp. Musc. Frond. Suppl. 1(1): 36. 1811. Protologue: Switzerland. In rupibus udis supra les Plans Helvetiae Schleich.

Anoectangium liebmannii Schimp. ex Besch., Mém. Soc. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg 16: 159. 1872. Protologue: Mexico. In monte Orizabensi (Liebmann in herb. Mus. Par.).

Anoectangium apiculatum Schimp. ex Besch., Mém. Soc. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg 16: 160. 1872. Protologue: Mexico. Mirador (Liebmann); Orizaba (Fimbriariae et Targioniae associatum Bourgeau legit).

Anoectangium condensatum Schimp. ex Besch., Mém. Soc. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg 16: 160. 1872. Protologue: Mexico. Cerro Leon prope Orizaba (Liebmann); in sylva San Nicolas, valle Mexicensi (Bourgeau, septembre 1865, n° 1352).

 

     Plants caespitose or tufted, light-green to yellowish green, saxicolous or terricolous. Stems 5–10(–20) mm high, smooth, central strand present, sclerodermis present; rhizoids red-brown, smooth. Leaves evenly spaced or occasionally crowed in comal tufts, appressed, crisped, at times twisted when dry, spreading when wet, keeled, lingulate to ovate-lanceolate, 0.5–1.5 x 0.2–0.5 mm; apices obtuse to acute, mucronate or sometimes apiculate; margins plane, crenulate above by papillae; costae percurrent, narrow, sparsely papillose at back, ventral surface cells enlarged, smooth, guide cells and single (dorsal) stereid band present; upper cells round, quadrate to oblate, 5–9 μm, becoming short-rectangular below mid-leaf, walls firm to thick, cells pluripapillose, papillae low, scattered over the lumina, occasionally fused into a single, large papilla; basal cells short-rectangular, those at margins quadrate to rectangular or transversely rectangular, 4–6:1, walls thin or thickened, pluripapillose, the papillae centered over the lumina, alar cells not differentiated. Dioicous. Perichaetia lateral, leaves ovate to oblong-lanceolate, acuminate. Setae 5–8 mm long, yellow to yellow-brown, smooth. Capsules exserted, erect, ellipsoidal, 0.7–1.2 mm long, smooth, yellowish brown; stomata in neck; opercula rostrate, beak bent, 0.4–0.6 mm long; peristome absent. Spores 8–12 μm in diameter, granulate, brown. Calyptrae 2 mm long.

 

 

 
 
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