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Published In: Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 12: 175. 1869. (J. Linn. Soc., Bot.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 10/22/2013)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project data     (Last Modified On 10/22/2013)
Nomenclature: A. aestivum (Hedw.) Mitt., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 12: 175. 1869.
Gymnostomum aestivum Hedw., Sp. Musc. 32. 1801.
G. euchloron Schwaegr., Sp. Musc. Suppl. 2(2): 83. 1827.
Anoectangium aestivum (Hedw.) B.S.G., Bryol. Eur. 1(fasc. 29/30). 1846, nom. inval.
A. euchloron (Schwaegr.) Mitt., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 12: 176. 1869.
A. apiculatum Schimp. ex Besch., Mem. Soc. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg 16: 160. 1872.
A. breutelianum Bruch & Schimp. ex Besch., Mem. Soc. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg 16: 160. 1872, nom. illeg.
A. condensatum Schimp. ex Besch., Mem. Soc. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg 16: 160. 1872.
A. liebmannii Schimp. ex Besch., Mem. Soc. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg 16: 159. 1872.
A. gradatum Card., Rev. Bryol. 36: 107. 1909.
    For additional synonymy, see Zander (1977).
Distribution: On soil or rock (both calcareous and non-calcareous and including volcanic rock or ash), on cliffs, roadcuts, and banks of streams, sometimes in spray of waterfalls, mostly between 1200 and 1700 m elev.; Chiapas, Chihuahua, Distrito Federal, Durango, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoac‡n, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Le—n, Oaxaca, San Luis Potos’, Sonora, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Yucat‡n. - Mexico; Central America; Andes of South America; West Indies; western Canada; Arizona and the Appalachian Mountain system; Europe, and Asia.
Discussion: This highly variable species is discussed in detail by Zander (1977). The angle of the leaf apex has been used in distinguishing various species included here in synonymy, but the apex varies continuously from rounded to sharply acute. One form has highly papillose leaf cells protruding in patches, sometimes in transverse rows. This rasp-leaved form, distinctive as it seems, intergrades in every respect with more typical expressions of the species. A strong orange color in 2% KOH immediately distinguishes A. aestivum from Hymenostylium recurvirostrum and Molendoa sendtneriana, which react negatively or light yellow. Barbula indica likewise has a narrow groove at the costa, but the leaf apex is never sharp and the base is usually distinctly broadened at the shoulders near the midleaf. The costa is swollen above the middle, roughened at back, and covered ventrally by short cells. Also, it occasionally bears propagula. Hymenostylium recurvirostrum has keeled, short-lanceolate leaves, but its areolation and papillosity are quite different.
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Stems occasionally flagellate, sparsely radiculose to red-brown tomentose, oval, rounded-triangular, or pentagonal in section, with epidermis undifferentiated. Leaves distant or occasionally crowded in comal tufts or series of tufts, when dry often spirally arranged, occasionally secund, appressed to somewhat spreading from the base and incurved to twisted above, when moist somewhat to widely spreading and recurved, (0.6-)1-1.5(-2) mm long, occasionally ± cucullate at the apex, broadly obtuse to sharply acute, usually apiculate or mucronate because of 1-3 pellucid cells, the base little differentiated or rarely distinctly ovate, not sheathing the stem or decurrent; margins occasionally crenulate above because of projecting cells or papillae; upper cells usually bulging, rounded-quadrate or occasionally oblong or angular, (5-)7-9(-15) µm wide, about 1:1, in some populations occasionally protruding from the surface, sometimes as bistratose patches or transverse rows, the papillae mostly 4-6 per cell, usually fused into a single compound papilla; basal cells short-rectangular, little broader than upper cells, mostly 2-4:1, smooth, yellow-brown, usually thick-walled. Setae 3-8 mm long; capsules 0.5-1(-1.5) mm long, short-necked; operculum 0.4-0.6(-0.8) mm long, with cells in straight rows. Spores 9-12(-19) µm, finely to strongly papillose.



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