(Last Modified On 2/18/2011)
(Last Modified On 2/18/2011)
Anomobryum julaceum is a
cosmopolitan species that is extremely variable throughout its range. The
species commonly has a smoothly julaceous aspect, and broad, bluntly obtuse
leaves with narrow, linear-vermicular, thick-walled upper leaf cells that
strongly contrast with its broadly rectangular, thin-walled, often bulging,
lower leaf cells.
Usually it can be distinguished from A. prostratum
with a handlens by its smaller size and smooth, julaceous leaves. There are
some collections of A. julaceum with appressed-braided leaves like those
of A. prostratum, but these odd collections can be recognized by their
linear-vermicular, thick-walled upper leaf cells. Aongstroemia orientalis
is similar to Anomobryum julaceum in having short, julaceous stems and
broadly obtuse leaves. Its plants differ, however, in being more stoutly tumid
with leaves having oval-rhomboidal upper cells, quadrate, thick-walled basal
cells, erose-denticulate margins, and a very thick costa.
It can be confused with Bryum argenteum which also
has a smoothly julaceous appearance. However, B. argenteum has a glaucous-green
to whitish color while A. julaceum is yellowish green.
This species has commonly been
called A. filiforme and indeed the species epithet filiforme
predates julaceum by a year. But, filiforme cannot be used in Anomobryum
for our species because that name is already in use for a different species of Anomobryum
Bartram (1928, Fig.
18); Bartram (1949, Fig. 74 H–J); Nyholm (1958, Fig. 107); Lawton (1971, Pl.
101 6–8); Ochi (1972, Fig. 27 A–H); Smith (1978, Fig. 181 6–8); Crum and
Anderson (1981, Fig. 235 A–C); Ireland (1982, Pl. 156); Koponen and Norris
(1984, Fig. 1 a–f); Magill (1987, Fig. 102 1–11); Noguchi (1988, Fig. 197 A);
Nyholm (1993, Fig. 128 A); Sharp et al. (1994, Fig. 339 f–m); Jóhannsson
(1995, Fig. 28). Figure 126.
On soil, volcanic sand,
clay banks, and on soil over rock; 1350–3400 m.
Distribution in Central America:
GUATEMALA. Baja Verapaz: Williams et al. 42193 (F, MO); Chimaltenango: Standley
64480 (F, FH); Huehuetenango: Standley 82428 (F, FH); Quezaltenango:
Sharp 2321 (MO); Quiché: Williams et al. 41612 (F, MO);
Sacatepéquez: Standley 65273 (F, FH); San Marcos: Standley 66271
(F, FH); Totonicapán: Williams et al. 41507A (MO). EL SALVADOR.
Sonsonate: Croat 42227 (MO). HONDURAS. Comayagua: Olson 84-70
(MO); Francisco Morazán: Allen 17789 (MO, TEFH). COSTA RICA. Cartago: Crosby
9790 (MO); Heredia: Crosby 3876 (CR, MO); Puntarenas: Lyon 68
(CR, DUKE, MICH, MO, NY, TENN, US); San José: Gómez 19547 (MO). PANAMA. Bocas del Toro: Allen 5321
(MO, PMA); Chiriquí: Allen 9106 (MO, PMA).
Western and Eastern Canada, Northwestern, North-Central, Northeastern,
Southwestern, and Southeastern U.S.A.; Mexico; Central America; Caribbean, Western,
Northern, and Southern South America, Brazil; Subantarctic Islands; Northern,
Middle, Eastern, Southwestern, and Southeastern Europe; Siberia, Russian Far
East, Caucasus, Middle Asia, Mongolia, China, Eastern Asia, Western Asia,
Arabian Peninsula; Macaronesia, Northern, West-Central, and Southern Africa,
Northeast, East, and South Tropical Africa, Western Indian Ocean; Indian
Subcontinent, Indo-China, Malesia.
Anomobryum julaceum (Gaertn., Meyer & Schreb.) Schimp., Syn. Musc. Eur. 383. 1860.
Bryum julaceum Schrader ex Gaertn., Meyer & Schreb., Oekon Fl. Wetterau 3(2): 97. 1802. Protologue: Auf Dächern, Mauern und Balken.
Bryum filiforme Dicks., Fasc. Pl. Crypt. Brit. 4: 16. 1801. Pohlia filiformis (Dicks.) Andr. in Grout, Moss Fl. N. Amer. 2(3): 205. 1935. Anomobryum filiforme (Dicks.) Husn., Muscol. Gall. 222. 1888., hom. illeg. non Jaeg., 1875. Protologue: Scotland. In subalpinis humidis Scotiae.
Anomobryum costaricense Bartr., Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 26(3): 78. 1928. Protologue: Costa Rica. On exposed rock, vicinity of Santa Maria de Dota, Province of San Jose, altitude 1,500 to 1,800 meters, Paul C. Standley and Juvenal Valerio, December 26, 1925, to January 3, 1926, no. 43154.
Plants small, yellow-green, glossy, gregarious or in loose tufts. Stems slender, julaceous, simple or with subperichaetial branches, to 25 mm high; rhizoids sparse at base. Leaves 1–1.5 mm long, imbricate, firm, not contorted when dry, concave, oblong to oblong-ovate; apices obtuse to broadly rounded; margins plane, not bordered, entire to weakly denticulate; costa subpercurrent; upper cells linear-vermicular, thick-walled, 40–100 x 4–6 μm, basal cells rectangular to quadrate, abruptly broader, thin-walled, 50–80 x 14–16 μm. Dioicous. Perichaetial leaves longer than vegetative leaves, narrowly acuminate. Setae to 25 mm long, red. Capsules 1.5–3 mm long, red-brown, oblong-pyriform, constricted to a short, slender neck, pendent, horizontal or suberect; opercula 0.5 mm long, conic-apiculate; annuli compound and revoluble; exostome teeth yellow-brown, densely papillose, endostome hyaline, lightly papillose, basal membrane to ½ of exostome teeth length, segments well-developed, broadly perforate cilia 2–3, appendiculate. Spores 10 μm, smooth. Calyptra not seen.