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Published In: Bryologia Javanica 1: 139. 1860. (Bryol. Jav.) Name publication detail

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 2/22/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project data     (Last Modified On 2/22/2011)

Most collections of B. exile from Central America were originally named B. barbe-montis. Ochi (1980, 1994) tentatively (he did not see the type of B. barbe-montis) synonymized the two taxa. Since, however, Ochi seems to have confused B. acuminatum and B. exile it seems best to wait until the type of B. barbe-montis is examined before placing it into synonymy with either B. exile or B. acuminatum. These species differ from all other Central American species of Brachymenium in having leaves less than 1 mm long. Brachymenium exile differs from B. acuminatum in having shorter, firm-walled leaf cells, a stoutly excurrent costa, and leaves that are weakly border by short, broad rectangular cells. Brachymenium fabronioides (C. Müll.) Par. (found in Mexico, the Caribbean and throughout South America) should occur in Central America. It is similar to B. exile in leaf shape and in having stoutly excurrent costae, but differs in having elongate, thin-walled upper leaf cells and long, narrow marginal leaf cells.

Illustrations: Bartram (1933, Fig. 79); Bartram (1939, Pl. 10 163); Bartram (1949, Fig. 73 H–J, as B. barbe-montis); Ochi (1964, Fig. 15 A–E); Ochi (1972, Fig. 4); Gangulee (1974, Fig. 455); Ochi (1980, Fig. 3); Koponen and Norris (1985, Fig. 10 a–g); Li (1985, Fig. 73 12–14); Shaw (1985a, Pl. 5 29); Noguchi (1988, Fig. 196 B); Sharp et al. (1994, Fig. 373 a–d). Figure 131.
Habitat: On damp or dry soil banks; 800–1360 m.
Distribution in Central America: GUATEMALA. Alta Verapaz: Svihla 2815 (FH);   Guatemala: Standley 89438 (F, FH, MICH); Jalapa: Standley 77527 (F, FH). EL SALVADOR. La Libertad: Chapman B-18 (MICH); San Salvador: Chapman C-5 (MICH). NICARAGUA. Managua: Standley 8243 (F). COSTA RICA. Puntarenas: Lyon 135 (MO).  PANAMA. Chiriquí: Nee 10841 (MO).
World Range: Mexico; Central America; Western and Northern South America, Brazil; Northern and Southern Africa, West, Northeast, West-Central, and East Tropical Africa, Western Indian Ocean; China, Eastern Asia; Indian Subcontinent, Indo-China, Malesia; Northwestern, North-Central, and Southwestern Pacific.


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Brachymenium exile (Dozy & Molk.) Bosch & Lac., Bryol. Jav. 1: 139. 1860.

Bryum exile Dozy & Molk., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. sér. 3, 2: 300. 1844. Protologue: Java, Sumatra. 

Plants minute, yellow-green, gregarious or in tufts. Stems slender, 2–7 mm long, epidermal cells rectangular, sparsely tomentose at base; rhizoids reddish brown, lightly papillose. Leaves 0.5–0.8 mm long, erect-appressed to imbricate, spreading when wet, concave, ovate; apices short acuminate; margins weakly bordered by short-rectangular cells, entire, erect above, slightly reflexed below; costa stoutly short-excurrent, ventral superficial cells at base quadrate to rectangular; cells firm-walled throughout, upper cells hexagonal to rhomboidal-hexagonal, 30–50 x 10 μm, basal cells quadrate to short-rectangular, 10–20 x 10 μm. Bulbous axillary gemmae sometimes present. Dioicous. Setae 15–30 mm long, red. Capsules 1.5–2.0 mm long, claviform to obovate-oblong, constricted at neck, erect; opercula 0.3–0.5 mm long, conic; annuli compound, revoluble; exostome teeth whitish red, thickly papillose, endostome yellowish, papillose, basal membrane to ¾–_ the exostome teeth length, segments rudimentary, cilia rudimentary to absent. Spores 10–14 μm, lightly roughened. Calyptrae 1 mm long, cucullate, hyaline-yellow below, reddish above.



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