(Last Modified On 2/22/2011)
(Last Modified On 2/22/2011)
Bryum capillare is a
variable species from which numerous taxa have been segregated (see Syed 1973).
It has a well-differentiated leaf border of long, thick‑walled cells but otherwise
the leaf cells are lax and thin‑walled. Its short, broad upper leaf cells
are often hexagonal while the basal leaf cells are shortly rectangular to
quadrate. The leaf margins are frequently serrate to serrulate in the upper one‑third.
In its typical expression the leaves are spirally‑twisted when dry and
the costa is long-excurrent, but the species is variable in all of its features
and many collections are difficult to separate from B. pseudocapillare.
Plants of B. pseudocapillare lack spirally twisted leaves and further
differ from B. capillare in having a weakly differentiated leaf border
and a percurrent to shortly excurrent costa. Bryum pseudocapillare
sometimes has smooth axillary gemmae, a feature absent in B. capillare. Bryum
laxulum is a troublesome expression that appears to be an
intermediate between B. capillare and B. pseudocapillare; it
lacks spirally twisted leaves and has a poorly differentiated leaf border, but
its costa is long-excurrent and it lacks axillary gemmae. Bryum jamaicense
differs from B. capillare only in having spinose-mammillose rather than
smooth rhizoidal tubers.
Bruch and Schimper
(1839, Pls. 367–369); Dixon and Jameson 1896, Pl. 45 A); Grout (1906, Pl. 48
1–17); Bartram (1939, Pl. 11 175); Bartram (1949, Fig 79 A–D); Ochi (1957,
Figs. 1–2); Nyholm (1958, Fig. 130); Abramova et al. (1961, Pl. 184);
Breen (1963, Pl. 62); Ochi (1967, Fig. 20 A–E); Ochi (1969, Fig. 39 A–D, as B.
vino‑viride, Figs. 40–42); Ochi (1970, Fig. 31); Lawton (1971, Pl. 91
1–10); Ochi (1972, Fig. 67); Syed (1973, Figs. 1–5); Gangulee (1974, Fig. 477);
Smith (1978, Fig. 190); Catcheside (1980, Fig. 147); Crum and Anderson (1981,
Fig. 266 A–I); Ireland (1982, Pl. 185 1–10); Orbán and Vajda (1983, Fig. 373);
Koponen and Norris (1984, Fig. 5 j–n); Reese (1984, Fig. 36 G–J); Li (1985,
Fig. 75 16–20); Noguchi (1988, Fig. 206); Nyholm (1993, Fig. 150 B); Sharp et
al. (1994, Fig. 361 a–d); Allen (1995, Fig. 4); Jóhannsson (1995, Fig. 61).
Figure 140 G–I.
On bark, tree trunk, damp
soil banks, in open meadows, at the base of outcropping rocks, and on rock
walls; 500–4200 m.
Distribution in Central America:
BELIZE. Toledo: Allen 15453 (MO). GUATEMALA. Chimaltenango: Standley
58740 (F); Jutiapa: Standley 75163 (F); Quezaltenango: Sharp 2289
(MO). EL SALVADOR. Ahuachapán: Standley & Padillo 2433 (F).
HONDURAS. Atlántida: Allen 17625 (MO, TEFH); Comayagua: Allen 12305B
(MO, TEFH); El Paraíso: Standley & Williams 4587a (F); Francisco
Morazán: Standley 201 (F); Intibuca: Davidse 34969 (MO, TEFH);
Lempira: Allen 11340A (MO, TEFH). NICARAGUA. Chontales: Standley 8900
(F); Masaya: Stevens 5290A (MO). COSTA RICA. Alajuela: Brenes 17148
(F); Cartago: Gómez 19602 (MO); Guanacaste: McQueen 5045 (MO);
Limón: Davidse et al. 29002 (CR, MO); Puntarenas: Gómez et al. 21697
(CR, MO); San José: Davidse 24958A (MO). PANAMA. Chiriquí: Croat
Subarctic America, Western and Eastern Canada, Northwestern, North‑Central,
Northeastern, Southwestern, South‑Central, and Southeastern U.S.A.;
Mexico; Central America; Caribbean, Northern, Western, and Southern South
America, Brazil; Subantarctic Islands; Northern, Middle, East, Southwestern,
and Southeastern Europe; Siberia, Russian Far East, Middle Asia, Mongolia,
Eastern Asia, Caucasus, Western Asia, Arabian Peninsula; Macaronesia, Northern
Africa, West, Northeast, West‑Central, East, and South Tropical Africa,
Southern Africa, Western Indian Ocean; Indian Subcontinent, Indo‑China,
Malesia; Australia, New Zealand; Northwestern and North‑Central Pacific.
Bryum capillare Hedw., Sp. Musc. Frond. 182. 1801.
Rosulabryum capillare (Hedw.) Spence, Bryologist 99: 223. 1996. Protologue: Ad vias cavas, muros, latera fossarum, ligna putrida Europae.
Bryum erythroneuron Mitt., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 12: 312. 1869. Protologue: Colombia and Ecuador. Andes Bogotenses, Paramo inter Bogota et Choachi (9000 ped.), Weir, n. 171; ad viam inter Tipaquira et Pacho (9400 ped), Weir 371. Andes Quitenses, Quito, Jameson ; in monte Tunguragua absque fructu, Spruce 330b; in monte Guayrapata, Spruce 330c; etiam in Andibus, Humboldt.
Bryum laxulum Card., Rev. Bryol. 36: 113. 1909. Protologue: Mexico. District fédéral: Cima, 1908 [Pringle] n. 15188, 15225 (US). Etat de Puebla: Honey‑station, 1908 [Pringle] n. 10655 (MO), 15298).
Plants small to medium-sized, shiny, green to yellowish green, sometimes tinged red, in loose tufts 5–50 mm high; rhizoids moderately developed at base, papillose; brown to reddish brown, smooth tubers sometimes present. Leaves 0.8–4 mm long, evenly spaced, spirally twisted when dry, erect‑spreading when wet, obovate‑spathulate; apices long-acuminate to piliferous; margins variously recurved, distinctly bordered by 3–7 rows of narrow, long‑rectangular cells, subentire to crenulate or serrulate; costae commonly long-excurrent, at times short excurrent to percurrent; upper cells rhomboidal to hexagonal, thin‑walled, 30–90 μm long, basal cells broadly rectangular, thin‑walled, bulging 30–130 μm long. Dioicous. Setae 10–20 mm long, reddish brown. Capsules 2–5 mm long, red, oblong‑cylindrical, symmetric, pendent, neck short, narrowed and gradually tapering to the seta; opercula 0.5 mm long, conic apiculate; exostome teeth yellow, densely papillose, endostome hyaline, lightly papillose, basal membrane to ½ of exostome teeth length, segments well-developed, narrowly perforate, cilia 2–5, appendiculate. Spores 9–25 μm, nearly smooth. Calyptra not seen.