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Published In: Species Muscorum Frondosorum 61. 1801. (Sp. Musc. Frond.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 2/15/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project data     (Last Modified On 2/15/2011)
Discussion: Encalypta ciliata is a widespread, mostly northern hemispheric species. It is distinguished from E. flowersiana by its recurved leaf margins, excurrent costae, single peristome, and lack of a stem central strand. Encalypta procera Bruch occurs nearby in Mexico and it also has recurved leaf margins but it differs from E. ciliata in having a stem central strand, densely clustered, brown, filiform propagula in the leaf axils, ribbed capsules, and a double peristome.
Illustrations: Crum and Anderson (1981, Fig. 116); Abramova and Abramov (1983, Fig. 13 9–14); Horton (1983, Figs. 321–345); Sharp et al. (1994, Fig. 313); Pursell and Allen (1997, Fig. 1). Abramov and Volkova (1998, Fig. 42 1–10). Figure 3.
Habitat: On soil over limestone beneath Juniperus; 3000–3500 m.
Distribution in Central America: GUATEMALA. Huehuetenango: Williams et al. 41097 (F, MO).
World Range: Subarctic America, Western and Eastern Canada, Northwestern, North-Central, Northeastern, Southwestern, and South-Central U.S.A.; Mexico; Central America; Caribbean, Western and Southern South America; Northern, Middle, Eastern, Southwestern, and Southeastern Europe; Siberia, Russian Far East, Caucasus, Middle Asia, China, Mongolia, Eastern Asia , Western Asia; Northern Africa, Northeast and East Tropical Africa, Southern Africa; Malesia.


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Encalypta ciliata Hedw., Sp. Musc. Frond. 61. 1801.

Protologue: type not cited; lectotype (Horton 1983): Leersia ciliata G-DC.


Plants medium-sized, caespitose, dull yellowish to ­olive green. Stems 8–12 mm, branched near base, central strand absent. Leaves crowded above, lingulate to narrowly oblong-elliptic, 2.5–5 x 0.8–1.2 mm, slightly clasping at base, erect-spreading, irregularly undulate above, crisped, folded when dry; apices cucullate, apiculate; margins crenulate, irregularly and narrowly recurved in lower 2/3; costa single, excurrent, with 2–3 rows of small dorsal stereids; upper cells angular-quadrate, 12.5–18.5 x 12.5–18.8 μm, thick-walled, pluripapillose on both sides by digitate c–shaped papillae; basal cells smooth, rectangular, 32.5–87.5 x 12.5–25.0 μm, transverse walls thickened, red to orange, longitudinal walls thin, hyaline or pale yellowish, basal marginal cells differentiated in 5–10 rows of narrow, elongate cells (5–9:1). Autoicous. Perichaetial leaves sheathing, ovate-elliptic, shorter than vegetative leaves, tubulose above. Setae single, 6–8 mm long, yellow, becoming reddish orange with age, twisted, smooth. Capsules cylindric, 2–5.4 mm long, orange-red or golden-brown, smooth or finely striolate, contracted below a reddish, suboral band of 6–7 rows of quadrate cells; exothecial cells rectangular to fusiform, thin-walled; stomata superficial; neck wrinkled; opercula narrowly rostrate from a plane-convex, reddish base; peristome single, of 16 brownish orange, triangular, slightly inserted teeth. Spores orange-brown, 35–44 μm wide, heteropolar, one side with a triculpate scar in a slight surface depression, the opposite side with a central rim and 4–5 radial plicae. Calyptrae 3–6 mm long, cylindric to elliptic-cylindric, shiny, yellowish brown or golden, tapering abruptly into a yellowish brown, straight or slightly curved rostrum, smooth, fringed at base with triangular segments, lacerate at their tips.


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