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Published In: Kongelige Norske Videnskabers Selskabs Skrifter 1908(8): 25. 1908. (Kongel. Norske Vidensk. Selsk. Skr. (Trondheim)) Name publication detail

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Entosthodon attenuatus is characterized by oblanceolate to oblong‑obovate, cuspidate, bordered leaves and by peristomate capsules more than 2 mm long. Although the peristome is double, the endostome is rudimentary with the short, broad segments barely projecting above the capsule mouth. The exostome teeth are sometimes weakly sigmoid. Entosthodon attenuatus can have erect or somewhat inclined and asymmetric capsules. The capsules in Central American material are mostly inclined and asymmetric and so it could be confused with E. acaulis (Hampe) Fife, a bordered-leaf species from northern South American with inclined to horizontal capsules. Entosthodon acaulis, however, has a well-developed double peristome with endostome segments 3/4 the length of the exostome teeth. In Central America there are only two species of Entosthodon with bordered leaves, E. attenuatus and E. bonplandii. The latter is differentiated by broader, more strongly toothed leaves and by mostly gymnostomous capsules less than 2 mm long (usually 1–1.4 mm long).

Illustrations: Husnot (1888, Pl. 58,as Entosthodon templetoni); Dixon & Jameson (1896, Pl. 38 E, as Funaria templetoni); Smith (1978, Fig. 162 1–3); Fife (1985, Pl. 10 j). Figure 108.
Habitat: Vertical, moist soil bank; 1840 m.
Distribution in Central America: COSTA RICA. Cartago: Holz CR99-652 (GOET, MO); San José: Crosby & Crosby 6393 (CR, MO, NY).
World Range: Southwestern U.S.A.; Central America; Caribbean; Northern, Southwestern, and Southeastern Europe; Macaronesia, Northern Africa.


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Entosthodon attenuatus (Dicks.) Bryhn, Kongel. Norske Vidensk. Selsk. Skr. (Trondheim) 1908(8): 25. 1908.

Bryum attenuatum Dicks., Fasc. Pl. Crypt. Brit. 4: 8. 1801. Funaria attenuata (Dicks.) Lindb., Not. Sällsk. Fauna Fl. Fenn. Förh.11: 633. 1870. Protologue: Scotland. Habitat in paludibus montosis Scotiae

Plants yellow‑green, usually gregarious in lax to dense tufts. Stems erect, 2–5 mm tall, sparsely branching by subperigonial innovations, usually naked at very base (except for rhizoids), the leaves more or less clustered toward stem apices, with a single‑layered sclerodermis over 1–2 rows of small reddish thick‑walled cells, subtended by abruptly larger thin‑walled cells, central strand well developed. Leaves erect‑spreading when dry, slightly contorted, wide‑spreading when moist, oblanceolate to oblong‑obovate, cuspidate, 1–2 mm long, concave, not decurrent; margins bluntly serrulate above, subentire below, plane; costa subpercurrent; upper cells subquadrate to hexagonal to short‑rectangular, thin‑walled, smooth, (34–)51–85 x 20–42 μm, differentiated at the margins with 1–2(–3) rows of narrow, elongate, yellowish cells, more or less confluent in the apex, disappearing toward the insertion, basal cells long‑rectangular, 100–240 x 34–57 μm, sometimes more or less inflated, alar cells not differentiated. Autoicous. Setae orange to reddish brown, straight to slightly flexuose, weakly hygroscopic, smooth, 0.8–1.4 cm long. Capsules reddish brown, narrowly oblong‑pyriform, neck 1/2 the capsule length, erect to inclined, somewhat asymmetric from a bend in the neck, somewhat constricted below the mouth when dry, wrinkled to sulcate in the neck, smooth above, 2–2.8 mm long; stomata phaneroporous, numerous in neck; opercula plano‑convex, cells subquadrate, thick‑walled, in more or less regular, straight vertical rows; annuli simple; peristome double, inserted well below the mouth, exostome teeth red‑brown, straight, 150 x 40 μm, acute or irregular at apex, papillose to papillose‑striate, endostome rudimentary, hyaline and weakly papillose, basal membrane short, segments short and blunt, projecting just above the capsule mouth, segments wider than teeth. Spores more or less angular, (22–)28–34 μm in diameter, very finely but densely roughened, without trilete scars. Calyptrae cucullate‑rostrate, 2–2.5 mm long, naked, smooth.


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