Bryologia Britannicae 219. 1855. (Bryol. Brit.
(Last Modified On 2/22/2011)
(Last Modified On 2/22/2011)
Leptobryum pyriforme is a
small, slender species often found in weedy habitats. In the Northern
Hemisphere it is a common greenhouse weed. The leaves are dimorphic with the
lower ones slenderly lanceolate and the upper ones setaceous and strongly
clasping at base. Its alar cells are undifferentiated, the leaves not
decurrent, the costa broad at base and nearly filling the upper limb, and the
leaf cells long, narrowly rectangular throughout. Superficially it can be
confused with a number of Dicranella species that have clasping leaves.
But, those species differ from Leptobryum pyriforme in having
short-rectangular leaf cells. Leptobryum pyriforme is synoicous and so
is commonly found with sporophytes. Its long, often flexuose setae and pendent,
glossy, pyriform capsules which are abruptly narrowed to a long neck greatly
aid in recognizing the species. The unusual axillary hairs of L. pyriforme
were previously noted by Crum and Anderson (1981). They are 3–4 cells long with
the lower 2 cells rectangular, dark-red, and persistent while the upper 1-2 are
oblong, hyaline, and deciduous.
Hooker and Taylor
(1818, Pl. 28); Bruch and Schimper (1839, Pl. 355); Dixon and Jameson (1896,
Pl. 41 H); Brotherus (1903, Fig. 408); Grout (1906, Fig. 105); Brotherus (1924,
Fig. 326); Andrews (1935, Pl. 76 C); Bartram (1949, Fig. 69 G–I); Nyholm (1958,
Fig. 96); Abramova et al. (1961, Fig. 145 1–3); Breen (1963, Pl. 64);
Lawton (1971, Pl. 97 1); Flowers (1973, Pl. 70 1–8); Gangulee (1974, Fig. 427);
Smith (1978, Fig. 172 1–5); Catcheside (1980, Fig. 142); Crum and Anderson (1981,
Fig. 247); Ireland (1982, Pl. 168); Orbán and Vajda (1983, Fig. 349); Reese
(1984, Fig. 36 C‑¬D); Koponen and Norris (1985, Fig. 12 a–k); Li (1985,
Pl. 73 1–11); Magill (1987, Fig. 101 12–22); Noguchi (1988, Fig. 199 A); Nyholm
(1993, Fig. 109); Sharp et al. (1994, Fig. 383); Churchill and Linares
(1995, Fig. 27 e–i); Jóhannsson (1995, Pl. 1). Figure 157.
Damp shaded bank; 2280 m.
Distribution in Central America:
GUATEMALA. San Marcos: Standley 66232 (F).
Western and Eastern Canada, Northwestern, North-central, Northeastern,
Southwestern, South‑Central, and Southeastern U.S.A.; Mexico; Central
America; Caribbean, Western, Northern, and Southern South America, Brazil;
Subantarctic Islands; Northern, Middle, East, Southwestern, and Southeastern
Europe; Macaronesia, Northern Africa, West Central and South Tropical Africa,
Southern Africa, Western Indian Ocean; Siberia, Russian Far East, Caucasus,
Middle Asia, Mongolia, China, Eastern Asia, Western Asia, Arabian Peninsula;
Indian Subcontinent, Malesia; Australia, New Zealand; North Central Pacific.
Leptobryum pyriforme (Hedw.) Wils., Bryol. Brit. 219. 1855.
Webera pyriformis Hedw., Sp. Musc. Frond. 169. 1801. Protologue: Germany. Locis lapidosis, sabulosis, subhumidis, in Germania.
Plants small and slender, pale to yellowish green, to10 mm high; rhizoids moderately developed at base, sometimes with globose tubers; reddish, globose propagula occasionally in leaf axils; axillary hairs 3–4 cells, lower 2 cells rectangular and maroon‑red, upper 1–2 cells oblong, hyaline and deciduous. Lower leaves to 1.5 mm long, upper leaves 4–5 mm long; margins entire to denticulate at the apex; costa broad, subpercurrent to shortly excurrent; upper cells 40–50 x 4 μm, basal cells 70–90 x 6 μm, alar cells not differentiated. Synoicous. Setae 20–30 mm long, yellow‑brown. Capsules 3 mm long, pyriform, pendent, neck long and narrow, to 1.5 mm long; opercula 0.5 mm long, conic‑mammillate; exostome teeth yellow, densely papillose, endostome yellowish hyaline, lightly papillose, basal membrane to ½ of exostome teeth length, segments well-developed, broadly perforate, cilia 2–3, appendiculate. Spores 10–16 μm, lightly roughened. Calyptrae cucullate.