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Published In: Species Muscorum Frondosorum, Supplementum Primum 2: 77. pl. 65. 1816. (Sp. Musc. Frond., Suppl. 1) Name publication detail

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 2/17/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project data     (Last Modified On 2/17/2011)

Funaria calvescens is often treated as a variety of F. hygrometrica Hedw., but well-developed plants differ from F. hygrometrica in three features. Plants of F. calvescens are usually more robust than F. hygrometrica and its stems are either naked at base or have a few reduced, well-spaced leaves giving the plants a more or less rosulate aspect. Sporophytically it differs from F. hygrometrica in having suberect, often weakly sulcate capsules and setae that may be cygneous when wet, but when dry are not spirally twisted. Most Central American collections that deviate from the typical expression of the species appear gametophytically identical to F. hygrometrica in that the plants are small and evenly foliate. These collections have typical F. calvescens sporophytes and at times one can find a few plants in the collections with naked stem bases. Another deviate expression of the species occurs in extremely robust of collections that have a few setae that are spirally twisted when dry. Most of the setae in these collections are untwisted and they have typical F. calvescens gametophytes and capsules. The setae in this species are phenomenally variable in length, ranging from 15 to 70 mm long.

Illustrations: Schwaegrichen (1816, Pl. 65); Bartram (1949, Fig. 68, as F. hygrometrica); Crum and Anderson (1981, Fig. 216 G); Sharp et al. (1994, Fig. 323b). Figure 114.
Habitat: On soil banks and steep slopes, soil over rocks, burnt areas around campfires, on logs, vertical rock faces, on bricks and damp tiles; 20–3500 m.
Distribution in Central America: BELIZE. Belize: Gentle 1807 (F, NY); Cayo: Greenfield (MO); Stann Creek: Gentle 8171 (MO, NY). GUATEMALA. Alta Verapaz: Standley 90790 (F, NY); Baja Verapaz: Williams et al. 41986 (F, MO); Chimaltenango: Williams et al. 41774 (F, MO); Chiquimula: Steyermark 31640 (F); Guatemala: Standley 80504 (F); Huehuetenango: Williams et al. 41085 (F, MO); Jalapa: Steyermark 32680 (F, NY); Quezaltenango: Standley 66448 (F); Sacatepéquez: Standley 58031 (F); San Marcos: Standley 86436 (F); Santa Rosa: Standley 77819 (F); Sololá: Williams et al. 41512A (F, MO); Totonicapán: Standley 83989 (F, NY); Zacapa: Steyermark 42460 (F, MO, NY). HONDURAS. Atlántida: Standley 55523 (F, NY); Comayagua: Allen 12305A (MO, TEFH); El Paraíso: Standley et al. 2119 (F); Intibucá: Standley 25537 (F); Lempira: Allen 11343 (MO, TEFH); Francisco Morazán: Standley & Williams 110 (F); Ocotepeque: Nelson et al. 3813 (MO); Olancho: Allen 12609 (MO, TEFH); Santa Bárbara: Crosby 4090B (MO); Yoro: Allen 13573 (MO, TEFH). EL SALVADOR. La Libertad: Montalvo 6347 (B, LAGU, MO); San Salvador: Fassett 28600 (MO); Santa Ana: Clausen & Kovar 6211 (MO, NY). NICARAGUA. Estelí: Moreno & Henrich 8657 (MO, NIC); Granada: Moreno & López 7115 (MO, NIC); Jinotega: Standley 10376 (F). COSTA RICA. Alajuela: Brenes 20389 (NY); Cartago: Wilkinson 346 (MO); Guanacaste: Croat 866A (MO); Heredia: Standley & Valerio 49673 (NY); Puntarenas: Crosby 2611 (CR, MO); San José: Nee 14030 (CR, MO). PANAMA. Chiriquí: Cornman 3167 (F, MO); Coclé: Folsom et al. 7075 (MO); Darién: de Nevers et al. 8535 (MO, PMA); Panamá: Allen 9052 (MO, PMA); Veraguas: Crosby 10124 (MO).<
World Range: Southeastern, South-Central, and Southwestern U.S.A.; Mexico; Central America; Caribbean, Northern, Western, and Southern South America, Brazil; Western Asia, China; Macaronesia, West, Northeast, West-Central, East, and South Tropical Africa, Western Indian Ocean; Indian Subcontinent, Indo-China, Malesia; Australia; Southwestern and North-Central Pacific.


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Funaria calvescens Schwaegr., Sp. Musc. Frond., Suppl. 1(2): 77. 1816.

Funaria hygrometrica var. calvescens (Schwaegr.) Mont., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. ser. 2 12: 54. 1839. Funaria hygrometric ssp. calvescens (Schwaegr.) Kindb., Eur. N. Amer. Bryin. 2: 330. 1897. Protologue: Dominican Republic. In Domingo lectam communicarunt Desfontaines, Thouin. Australia (?). In novo Belgio carptam La Billardiere.

Funaria megapoda C. Müll., Bull. Herb. Boissier 5:175. 1897. Protologue: Guatemala. Pansamalá, in rupibus, Decembri 1887, Türckheim (NY).


Plants small to medium-sized, light-green or yellowish green in loose tufts 5–25 mm high; stems nearly naked below, sclerodermis and central strand present; rhizoids reddish brown, smooth, clustered at base of stems. Upper leaves 2–3 mm, lower leaves reduced, leaves crowded at apex, erect-contorted when dry, erect, concave when wet, soft and flaccid, deeply concave, obovate‑oblong, acute to short-acuminate, not or weakly decurrent at base; not bordered, margins plane to erect, often undulate when dry, entire to somewhat serrulate above; costa subpercurrent to shortly excurrent; upper cells hexagonal to rhomboidal-hexagonal, with thin, bulging walls, 37–62 x 12–30 μm, basal cells enlarged, rhomboidal-hexagonal, 90–112 x 70–87 μm, alar cells not differentiated. Autoicous. Paraphyses clavate with enlarged, subglobose to ellipsoid cells. Setae 15–70 mm long, brownish red, cygneous when wet, not or weakly twisted when dry. Capsules 3–4 mm long, pyriform, suberect but very oblique at mouth, gradually tapered from the neck, plicate when wet or dry; opercula 0.2–0.5 mm high, weakly conic, not or minutely apiculate; annuli compound and revoluble; peristome diplolepidous, exostome teeth from a short, yellow, densely papillose membrane, brownish yellow below with well-developed, dark-red trabeculae, hyaline at tips, densely striate-papillose, asymmetrically curved above and united at tips with a latticed central disk, endostome lacking basal membrane and cilia, segments opposite and united at base of exostome teeth, broad below, abruptly narrowed above, pale-yellow, densely papillose, 2/3 the length of the exostome. Spores 10–14 μm, yellowish, verrucate. Calyptrae 3 mm long, cucullate, inflated, long-rostrate.



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